Posts Tagged ‘WW2’

1922-2012 90 Years to first Arab racist anti-Jewish boycott

February 22, 2012

1922-2012 90 Years to first Arab racist anti-Jewish boycott

The current bigoted anti-Israel boycotts, are NOT related to any “policies.” It began many years before Israel was re-established, in 1922. It was pushed mainly by the infamous Mufti Haj amin al-Husseini, who allied himself with Hitler later on.

Authors:

Economic warfare is an essential component of total war; anti-Semitism is the ideological concomitant of the Arabs’ total war against the Jewish state.

Anti-Semitism imbues this economic war with hatreds which have historic roots within the Arab world; it is an endemic feature of the boycott, despite the Arab claim that they have a quarrel only with “Zionists,” not with Jews.
[…] A call went out in 1922 from the Fifth Arab Congress, meeting in Nablus, for all Arabs to boycott Jewish businesses; seven years later, the First Palestine Arab Women’s Congress asked “every Arab to buy nothing from the Jews but land, and to sell them everything but land.”
Other, similar calls went out in 1931 and 1933, and in 1936 a boycott of all Jewish products was proclaimed by Haj Amin al-Husseini, the Grand Mufti and spiritual leader of all Moslems. This was the forerunner of today’s Arab Trade Boycott.

Terence Prittie, Walter Henry Nelson, Ter The economic war against the Jews (Secker & Warburg, 1978, 269 pp.) p. 4, p. 9

In March and April 1933, The Mufti, praised Nazi Germany’s anti-Jewish treatment, especially the boycotts.

Current organizers of anti-Israel boycotts (like, BDS, Anti-Semitism’s New Face,” the movement to “isolate Israel as part of their program to destroy Israel”, PHAS-Anti-Semitic Motifs in Anti-Israelism have been exposed, and as US offical says Yes, the Boycott of Israel Is Anti-Semitic and as celebrated Italian writer says the boycott ‘is “a form of racism.”‘ Demonizing unfairly, blatantly maliciously lying obessively about the 100% democratic victim-Israel fighting off a constant existential threat since the 1920s and beyond, is bigotry, not “legitimate criticism.”) ‘market’ their racism with the false cover of “anti-racism,” and using the outrageous “apartheid slur,” which was invented in 1961 by the Mufti’s henchman Ahmad Ahukairy, who allied hismelf with Nazi groups in 1962 and is known for coining the genocide phrase ‘throw the Jews into the sea,’ in 1967, called Shukairy’s slogan.

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1941-2011 70 Years to Arab Nazism in “Palestine” nothing has changed!

September 22, 2011
1941-2011 70 Years to Arab Nazism in "Palestine" nothing has changed!

This is the real FLAG of Islamic [worse than apartheid] envisioned [23rd] Arab State called: Palestine.

The same Arab-Nazi Judenrein plan… as you hear PLO’s admission of a "vision" of a Jew-Free Palestine… scheme.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/muftihit.html

http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC

In November, 1941, the Grand Mufti meets with Adolph Hitler. Hitler declined to shake the Mufti’s hand and refused to drink coffee with him. (As Arabs were considered "monkeys" by Hitler/Nazis). But still managed to cooperate against the Jews. The Islamic pan-Arab leader also called for a jihad against the British and their Western allies.


Armies of the young: child soldiers in war and terrorism, David M. Rosen, (2005), p. 106

Nationalist rhetoric accompanied major efforts to build fascist-style youth organizations by recruiting young men to serve as the strike force of the nationalist movement. Throughout the 1930s the children of wealthy Palestinians returned home from European universities having witnessed the emergence of fascist paramilitary forces. Palestinian students educated in Germany returned to Palestine determined to found the Arab Nazi Party.

The Husseinis used the Palestinian Arab Party to establish the al-Futuwwa youth corps, which was named after an association of Arab Nazi Scouts. By 1936 the Palestinian Arab Party was sponsoring the developments of storm troops patterned on the German model. These storm troops, all children and youth, were to be outfitted in black trousers and red shirts… The young recruits took the following oath: “Life — my right; independence — my aspiration; Arabism — my country, and there is no room in it for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness.” .. The al-Futuwwa youth groups connected Palestinian youth to fascist youth movements elsewhere in the Middle East. While the Mufti was establishing youth groups in Palestine, al-Futuwwa groups were established in Iraq.

http://books.google.com/books?id=zQYQ0tho6mAC&pg=PA106&lpg=PA106





Related, see:

Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine By Klaus-Michael Mallmann, Martin Cüppers

http://books.google.com/books?id=8JiqNpE-Lz4C

Some anniversaries in Arabs’ racist war on Israel/Jews 1921-2011 – unrelated to that “occuptaion” false excuse

September 20, 2011

Some anniversaries in Arabs’ racist war on Israel/Jews 1921-2011

Within a few days, next to the term “Palestine” we are bound to be subject to hear that filthy blanket-for-Arab-crimes: “occupation” mantra [this despite the falsehood of the term, like, for instance, that the Arab “Palestinians” never really ‘HAD’ the disputed territories, nevertheless], being thrown around at the Arab lobby’s hijacked United Nations. Let’s put, then, some anniversaries in perspective, especially their pre-1967 anti-Israel, or more accurately anti-Jewish war.

More on Arab-Islamic bloody anti-Jewish campaign before 1967

A History of Terrorism in Israel

http://www.lindasog.com/public/terrorvictims.htm

Before the Creation of the State of Israel – Anti-Defamation League
http://www.adl.org/israel/record/conflicts.asp

Arab Violence in Israel Began Long Before the Occupation

http://www.arabisraeliconflict.info/arab-israel-facts/fact-5-arab-violence

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Farhud: a slaughter in Iraq – 70 Years to the Arab-Nazi massacre

June 5, 2011

Farhud: a slaughter in Iraq

JC ^| May 31, 2011 | Lyn Julius

Farhud: a slaughter in Iraq
By Lyn Julius, May 31, 2011

There was a frenzied banging on the front door. When my mother answered it, she recognised her aunt’s Jewish cook, ashen-faced, pleading to be let in: “I was on a bus, and the Muslims were pulling the Jewish passengers out and killing them. I said I was a Christian.” A month earlier, pro-Nazi officers led by Rashid Ali al-Ghailani, had staged a successful coup in Iraq. The German-backed Rashid Ali and his men were soon routed by British troops – but not before they had incited murder and mayhem against the Jewish “fifth column”.

Seventy years ago, on June 1 1941, a group of Jews, wearing their Shavuot best, had ventured out for the first time in weeks to greet the returning pro-British Regent, only to be ambushed by an armed Arab mob. Terrified Jews barricaded themselves inside their houses, or ran for their lives across the flat rooftops.

The rioting went on for two days: around 180 Jews died in Baghdad and Basra (the exact figure is not known); hundreds were wounded, 900 homes and 586 Jewish-owned shops were destroyed; there was looting, rape and mutilation. Stories abound of babies murdered and Jewish hospital patients refused treatment or poisoned. The dead were hurriedly buried in a mass grave.

Jews recognised some assailants – the butcher, the gardener. But some brave Arabs saved Jews. My aunt tells how the neighbours sheltered her until the trouble had died down. The neighbour was a prominent Nazi, but his wife was “a lady — she even made the beds for us,” my aunt recounts.

The screams reached the ambassador at a candlelit dinner The Farhud (Arabic for “violent dispossession”) marked an irrevocable break between Jews and Arabs in Iraq and paved the way for the dissolution of the 2,600-year-old Jewish community barely 10 years later.

A question mark hovers over the role of the British – encamped on the city outskirts, they delayed intervening until the looting had spread to Muslim districts. Yet the victims’ screams reached the British ambassador, Cornwallis, who was enjoying a candlelit dinner and a game of bridge.

Loyal and productive citizens comprising a fifth of Baghdad, the Jews had not known anything like the Farhud in living memory. Before the victims’ blood was dry, army and police warned the Jews not to testify against the murderers and looters. Even the official report on the massacre was not published until 1958.

Despite their deep roots, the Jews understood that they would never, along with other minorities, be an integral part of an independent Iraq. Fear of a second Farhud was a major reason why 90 per cent of Iraq’s Jewish community fled to Israel after 1948.

But the Farhud was not just another anti-Jewish pogrom. The Nazi supporters who planned it had a more sinister objective: the round-up, deportation and extermination in desert camps of the Baghdadi Jews.

The inspiration behind the coup, and the Farhud itself, came not from Baghdad, but Jerusalem. The Grand Mufti, Haj Amin al-Husseini, sought refuge in Iraq in 1939 with 400 Palestinian émigrés. Together, they whipped up local anti-Jewish feeling. An illiterate populace imbibed bigotry through Nazi radio propaganda. Days before the Farhud broke out, the Nazi youth movement, the Futuwa, went around daubing Jewish homes with a red palm print. Yunis al-Sabawi, who, together with the Mufti and Rashid Ali, spent the rest of the war in Berlin, instructed the Jews to stay in their homes so that they could more easily be rounded up.

The Farhud cemented a wartime Arab-Nazi alliance designed to rid Palestine, and the world, of the Jews. The Mufti’s postwar legacy endured. The uprooting of the 140,000 Jews of Iraq followed a Nazi pattern of victimisation – dismantlement, dispossession and expulsion. Nuremberg-style laws criminalised Zionism, freezing Jewish bank accounts, instituting quotas and restrictions on jobs and movement. The result was the exodus of nearly a million Jews from the Arab world.

More Jews died than on Kristallnacht, yet the Farhud has not become part of Holocaust memory. Indeed, the Washington Holocaust Museum had to be vigorously lobbied to include the Farhud as a Holocaust event.

Nazism gave ideological inspiration both to Arab secular parties and the Muslim Brotherhood (Gaza branch: Hamas). The unremitting campaign to destroy Israel is simply a manifestation of the genocidal intentions of Arab nationalism and Islamism. The demons awakened by the Farhud are still with us today.
http://www.thejc.com/comment-and-debate/comment/49676/farhud-a-slaughter-iraq


 
Farhud Commemoration, 70 Years BayJews.org – Event – San Francisco – San Francisco – JIMENA – Farhud Commemoration, 70 Years After.
http://www.bayjews.org/DETAIL.aspx?ID=18511&REFID=0

Seventy years since the FarhudSeventy years to the day, we will be commemorating the Farhud with a screening of a 25-minute documentary film made in cooperation with the Babylonian …
http://www.harif.org/farhud.html

 

 


 

 

 

The ‘FARHUD’ pogrom on Jews in Iraq, inspired by the Mufti, by a mob led by Al-Muthanna club’s al-Futuwwa Arab-Fascist paramilitary group, Iraqi soldiers were among the first attackers. Jews were killed randomly, hundreds were injured, women and children were raped in front of their relatives, babies crushed…

JJAC In June 1941, the Mufti-inspired, pro-Nazi coup of Rashid Ali sparked rioting and a pogrom in Baghdad. Armed Iraqi mobs murdered 180 Jews and wounded almost …
http://www.justiceforjews.com/iraq.html

Holocaust Encyclopedia, The Farhud
The rise of this pro-German government threatened the Jews in Iraq. Nazi influence and antisemitism already were widespread in Iraq, due in large part to the German legation’s presence in Baghdad as well as influential Nazi propaganda, which took the form of Arabic-language radio broadcasts from Berlin. Mein Kampf had been translated into Arabic by Yunis al-Sab’awi, and was published in a local newspaper, Al Alam al Arabi (The Arab World), in Baghdad during 1933-1934. Yunis al-Sab’awi also headed the Futtuwa, a pre-military youth movement influenced by the Hitlerjugend (Hitler Youth) in Germany. After the coup d’etat, al-Sab’awi became a minister in the new Iraqi government.
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007277 The Farhud, the Mufti inspired Krystallnacht in Iraq, 1941, The Farhud took place Sunday and Monday, June 1st and 2nd 1941 …
http://www.eretzyisroel.org/~jkatz/farhud.html

Memories of state: politics, history, and collective identity in modern Iraq By Eric Davis [Page 70]
al-Muthanna club… under German ambassador Fritz Grobba’s influence developed a youth organization, the al-Futuwwa, modeled on European fascist lines, al-Sab’awi had developed strong anti-Jewish sentiments. Known in colloquial Iraqi Arabic as the Farhud (Pogrom), a mob led by al-Muthanna Club members and its youth organization attacked the Baghdad Jewish community on June 1 and 2, 1941, killing and wounding several Jews and destroying considerable property.
http://books.google.com/books?id=4qRW5KpgDM4C&pg=PA70

Pogroms against the Jewish people of Iraq in 1941. Based on the relationship with the Nazis with the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. Presented by the International Society for Sephardic Progress.
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4820909332676727479#

Farhud – Historical background, Farhud – The Golden Square coup, Farhud – June 1-2 1941, Farhud – Aftermath. Read more here: ֲ» Farhud: Enncyclopedia …
http: //www.experiencefestival.com/babylonian_talmud

Fascism and Antisemitism (1933 1941)

At that time the press drew a clear dividing line between Judaism and Zionism. This line became blurred in the 1930s, along with the demand to remove Jews from the genealogical tree of the Semitic peoples. This anti-Jewish trend coincided with Faysal’s death in 1933, which brought about a noticeable change for the Jewish community. His death also came at the same time as the Assyrian massacre, which created a climate of insecurity among the minorities. Iraqi Jewry at that time had been subject to threats and invectives emanating not only from extremist elements, but also from official state institutions as well. Dr. Sִmִ« Shawkat, a high official in the Ministry of Education in the pre-war years and for a while its director general, was the head of “al-Futuwwa,” an imitation of Hitler’s Youth. In one of his addresses, “The Profession of Death,” he called on Iraqi youth to adopt the way of life of Nazi Fascists. In another speech he branded the Jews as the enemy from within, who should be treated accordingly. In another, he praised Hitler and Mussolini for eradicating their internal enemies (the Jews). Syrian and Palestinian teachers often supported Shawkat in his preaching.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0010_0_09571.html

Identity, conflict and cooperation in international river systems, (Jack Kalpakian, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004 , page 134)
The Jewish community was among the mid-sized communities in the country at the time of Iraq’s creation. At a time when Iraq’s population was much smaller, it numbered somewhere between 100,000-300,000 making it a significant player in Iraqi life, especially because it was cencentrated in Baghdad. The troubles started in 1933 when the Assyrian Christians became the victims of an Army campaign designed to thin their numbers and to destroy their mlitary power. This massacre was not the first and unfortunately not the last, and it would not be an exaggeration to say that the repression of the Assyrians continued until the fall of Saddam. It foreshadowed the pogroms the Jewish community was to suffer a few years later…
Faisal’s son, Ghazi, became king in 1933. Ghazi was ill-tempered, bigoted and an admirer of Nazi Germany. With the king turning to Nazi Germany, the position of the Jewish community eroded… In 1941, a coup brought a pro-Nazi party to power, and Britain (from Palestine and the Trans-Jordan) and British India (from the Persian Gulf) sent armies to restore the empire’s clients to power. But on the orders of the British Ambassador, Sir Kinahan Cornwallis, the Anglo-Indian Army and the Trans- Jordanian Arab Legion did not enter the center of Baghdad for several days, allowing the ragtag remnants of the Iraqi army’s pro-German factions to massacre and kill unarmed Iraqi Jewish civilians in what became known as the farhud pogrom. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=EmlX4Y7PMjgC&pg=PA134

Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East, (Volumen 2, Richard W. Bulliet, Macmillan Reference USA 1996, page 642)
After the defeat of Rashid Ali al-Kaylani’s pro-Nazi coup and his flight from Baghdad on June 1 and 2, 1941. Jewish life and property were attacked in what came to be called in Baghdad the Farhud. The looting was started by Iraqi soldiers who had been allowed to roam the streets of Baghdad…
http://books.google.com/books?id=KE8YAAAAIAAJ&q=pro-nazi

Memories of Eden: a journey through Jewish Baghdad by Violette Shamash, Mira Rocca, Tony Rocca, (Memories of Eden, 2008, page 192)
There were few doubts in our minds how perilous our position was, with the city’s policing now in the hands of the Al-Futuwwa mobs.
http://books.google.com/books?id=t623fHAspCwC&q=al-futuwwa

Nationalism, minorities and diasporas: identities and rights in the Middle East, (Volume 8 of Library of modern Middle East studies, by Kirsten E. Schulze, Martin Stokes, Colm Campbell, Tauris Academic Studies, 1996,Page 107)
…the pogrom of the Jews of Baghdad on 1-2 June 1941, known as the Farhud. For two days, Muslim masses massacred, wounded, raped, and looted, while the British forces, informed about these horrible events, abstained from…
http://books.google.com/books?id=zm1tAAAAMAAJ&dq=farhud

The Farhud took place Sunday and Monday, June 1st and 2nd 1941, the two days of Shabu’oth. The word Farhud denotes the breakdown of law and order, where life and property are in peril. 
Jews lived in Babylonia (modern Iraq) for over 2,400 years, since the destruction of the first Beth Hamiqdash. Jews were treated tolerantly by the Moslems and, while abuses (such as hooliganism, snatching of men’s fez caps and even murders) had been recorded from time to time, the Farhud is the only sad event of sizable magnitude. 
Jews lived mainly in Baghdad and, in 1870, started moving to other towns such as Amarah, Ali Agharbi, Qalaat Salih and Basrah.

Mr. Naim Dallal spoke in depth about his experiences in Baghdad and Iran and thanked Dr. Khabbaza for information he provided for his speech The development of Basrah which started to flourish again after the opening of the Suez Canal, adversely affected Aleppo in Syria and northern Iraq. 
The fact that the majority of the Jewish community was concentrated in Baghdad explains why the Baghdadi Jews bore the brunt of the Farhud.
Some reasons for the farhud: 
A) Political: under British occupation (1914/1918–1922) Jews gained confidence, felt secure and did not tolerate any mockery or physical abuse. Some went as far as to proclaim themselves British citizens or proteges — this was strongly resented by the Moslems.

Mrs. Rachel Manasseh spoke eloquently about the Farhud and the events that led up to the Farhud.  B) Economic: Jews were very active in all trade and finance fields — at the same time they were a sizable percentage of the civil service staff.
On August 27, 1934 numerous Jews were dismissed by Arshad Alumari, Minister of Economics and Communication, and an unofficial quota was set up for Jews to be appointed in the civil service and for Jews to be admitted into secondary schools and colleges.
C) Hatred of the Jews: stirred by several organizations headed by such prominent officials as Dr. Fadil Al Jamali (Inspector General of the

The event was MC’d by Mr. Robert Aizer.

Ministry of Education), Dr. Saib Showkat (Director of Baghdad Central State Hospital), General Taha Al Hashimi (Chief of Staff ), General Salah Aldin Al Sabbagh. The Palestinians Fawzi Al–Qauqji Darwish Al Miqdadi, Mufti Haj Amin Al Husseini together with the Syrians Farid Zayn Ad–Din and Dr. Amin Ruwayha were also very active in these organizations. 
The driving force behind this anti British, anti Jewish, anti Zionist movement was the German embassy in Baghdad headed by Dr F. Grobba which generously supplied money, books and film.

Mr. Joe Eden was Director of Social Services in Israel, when in two months, he witnessed the arrival of 200,000 Jews from Iraq. Leading up to the Farhud.
April 1,1941: The Royal palace in Baghdad was surrounded by the army. The regent and his entourage escaped to Habbaniyeh, from there to Basrah and thence to Amman in Transjordan. April 3, 1941 Nazi sympathizer Rashid Ali Al Gaylani and four generals led a military coup, deposed the absent regent and were the real rulers of Iraq with the pro–Nazi junta. 
At once hoodlums and students demonstrated in the streets against the British and the Jews.

People of all ages came to hear and learn. Looting of property and beating up of Jews took place in Baghdad, Mosul, Kirkuk, Irbil, Basrah, Amara and Fallujah. The killing of Jews took place in Baghdad alone. 
May 30, 1941: Yunis Al Sabawi, head of Nazi groups, declared himself governor of central southern Iraq. He ordered Jews through Hakham Sasson Khedouri, to remain in their homes Saturday, May 31, and on June 1 and 2Shabu’oth. He had the intention of slaughtering the Jews that weekend using the Nazi youth organizations he was heading. However, miraculously, Sabawi was deported to the Iranian border that same day.
May 31,1941: It was announced that the Regent with his entourage would be returning to Baghdad next day.

Mrs. Bianca Aizer read a fascinating  personal account written for the Midrash by Dr. Simha Nathaniel who was a nurse in the hospital in Baghdad. The Farhud. 
June 1, ’41, the first day of Shabu’oth: A delegation of Jews went to the airport to welcome the Regent. On their way back they were attacked on Al Khurr bridge by soldiers and civilians. One Jew was killed, and many injured who were taken to the hospital. There were attacks and killings in Al Rusafa and Abu Sifyan; terror continued until 10 p.m. : Jews were killed randomly, hundreds were injured, women and children were raped in front of their relatives, babies crushed, houses set on fire, looting…and so on. 

June 2 ,1941: Policemen, soldiers and slum dwellers from Al Karkh entered the scene, and participated in the killing and the looting everywhere.

At 5 p.m., curfew was declared and anyone who showed himself in the streets was shot on the spot.
Reports varyofficial Iraqi reports mention 187 killed, others say as many as one thousand, but it seems likely that about 400 innocents were killed with numerous wounded.
It would be inappropriate, however, not to mention some humanitarian acts carried out by some Iraqis.
1) Many Moslems opened their homes and fed and protected the Jews. It had been reported that some Moslems apologized for not being able to provide Kasher meat and/or poultry to their guests.
2) Looters in Basrah on May 1941, were stopped by a distinguished Moslem notable, Salih Bashayan, who appointed guards from his own men to protect Jewish property
3) On June 1, 1941 pressed by the mob to oust the injured Jews from the hospital where they were treated, Jamil Dallali, the director, called the police who dispersed the hostile crowd…
http://midrash.org/articles/farhud/

Remembering The Farhud, The Pogrom That Ended Iraqi Jewish Life

…Only a few Jews remain in Iraq today.

June 01, 2010
By Karam Mnashe, Charles Recknagel

Few people in Iraq know what happened in Baghdad exactly 69 years ago.

But on June 1-2, 1941, something previously unthinkable in the city occurred. Mobs attacked the capital’s prosperous and influential Jewish community, killing more than 100 people and looting homes.

By the time the orgy of murder and pillaging was done, the Jewish community was so shaken that it would never recover. Within 10 years, the vast majority would leave the country, leaving behind just the handful of people who tend the capital’s empty synagogue today.

The two days of terror are known in Iraq as the Farhud, the Arabic word for pillaging or looting an enemy. Yet most Iraqis know very little about the event because Iraq’s history books rarely speak of them. Those writers who do mention those days simply explain the violence as the result of the Iraqi Jewish community’s “Zionist activities,” without detailing more.

But people who survived the attacks and remember the events tell another story — like Layer Abudia, who now lives in Israel, who was a child at the time of the pogrom.

“I watched people killing at least four to five Jews in front of me,” Abudia says. “Every car that passed by was stopped by the mob that pulled Jews out and killed them. I heard they killed 20 to 25 people in the airport area.”

Abudia and the others who experienced the two days of horror will never forget standing on the rooftops of their houses as the violence started on the first night.

For many, the first warning was a dull orange glow that appeared over the very heart of the city center where the Jewish and Muslim communities abutted. Then came distant screams and banging, which grew louder as looters moved deeper into the Jewish neighborhoods. Finally, up close, there was the horrifying sight of the neighbors desperately trying to leap with their children to an adjoining rooftop as armed men broke down their doors.

“That night we heard screams coming out of the houses of Jews,” recalls Nassim al-Qazzaz, another survivor who now lives in Israel. “They were killed and their homes were pillaged. This continued for less than 24 hours.”

“The next day, approximately at noon, the regent Abdul Illah issued an order to fire on the mob,” Qazzaz says. “He could have done that the same day of course, before things got worse, but he preferred not to interfere so the mob could release their anger at the Jews.”

Vulnerable Minority

The Farhud was so shocking because, based on most of the 1,000-year history of Jews in Iraq, no one could have expected it.

At the time of the pogrom, Jews made up some 3 percent of the Iraqi population, with some 90,000 living in the capital. Many were successful in business, many worked as officials in the British-mandated government, and many were among the country’s leading intellectual and cultural figures.

…several things had happened to make the Iraqi Jews’ position especially vulnerable.

One was the rise of fascism in Europe, followed by the Axis powers’ sweeping successes against Britain in the first years of war. And central to the Nazi ideology was hatred of the Jews. Finally, there was the common cause some Arab Muslim leaders made with Nazism and its hatred of Jews in hopes the Axis powers would propel them to power in the Middle East.

One such leader, who arrived in Iraq in 1939, was Amin Muhammad al-Husayni, the grand mufti of Jerusalem. He had fled British-mandate Palestine after the failure of the Palestinian uprising of 1936-39 against growing Jewish immigration.

Husayni had been a key instigator of violence on the Arab side as the number of Jews jumped from 17 percent of Palestine’s population in 1931 to 30 percent in 1935. Many of the arriving Jews were fleeing Germany and now the grand mufti was seeking Berlin’s help to expel both them and the British mandate authorities from the Holy Land.

But it was in Iraq, not Palestine, that the kind of alliance Husayni was proposing got its first test. There, Berlin backed an anti-British coup in April 1941 led by nationalist Rashid Ali al-Gaylani — a Husayni ally — and supported by high-ranking army officers. The coup easily toppled the country’s weak Hashemite monarchy, which was originally from the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia and widely regarded as London’s puppet.

The coup was soon suppressed with the arrival of British-led Indian and Arab Legion troops, who reached Baghdad by May 29. But the combination of the failed coup amid months of the sort of pro-Nazi and anti-Jewish propaganda espoused by Husayni proved to be fatal for Jewish Baghdadis.

Driven From Their Home

Exactly what set off the pogrom is not known, but it may have been the Jewish community’s celebration of its annual harvest festival, Shavuot, on June 1. The sight of Jews celebrating became a pretext for fascists to portray them as welcoming the coup’s failure. And the chance to act came as British troops waited outside Baghdad so that royalist Iraqi soldiers could enter first, creating a power vacuum in the city.

Survivor Qazzaz says that even today he doesn’t know what happened to his father in the pogrom. But he says after such violence, most Iraqi Jews felt they had no option but to emigrate.

“Since then we have not heard anything about the fate of my father and his companion. Some 180 Jews were killed in this massacre. Scores of houses and shops were looted and plundered, women violated and murdered,” Qazzaz says. “That was the Farhud. In my opinion it was one of the main reasons that drove Jews to leave Iraq.”

Most of the exodus took place in the early 1950s, after tensions over the 1948 Arab-Israeli war isolated the Jewish community even further. The Iraqi government declared “those who want to leave can leave” and some 100,000 left for Israel.

Today the Farhud — Baghdad’s Krystallnacht — remains significant not only for breaking the spirit of Baghdad’s once thriving Jewish community. It also proved how powerful the fusion of fascism and radical Islam could be.

That fusion would develop further as Husayni spent the rest of the war in Nazi Germany and broadcast messages across a sizable segment of the Middle East via a powerful radio located in Bari, Italy.

His messages were a continuous call for uprisings to evict the allies. But he reserved his greatest invective for Jews, saying their “spilled blood pleases Allah, our history, and religion,” and proclaiming “if America and England win the war, the Jews will dominate the world.”

At the same time, he vigorously recruited European Muslims for the Wehrmacht and for special Waffen SS units, especially in the former Yugoslavia. And he actively lobbied against any deportation of Jews to Palestine from Romania and Hungary, urging they be sent to Poland — where the Nazis operated death camps* — instead.

Arab Independence

Throughout, what Husayni wanted from Hitler and finally got in 1942 remained the same. It was a letter sent by the German and Italian foreign ministers to him and a fellow exile in Nazi Germany, al-Gaylani, promising three things: Axis support for the independence of the Arab states from British and French colonial rule; the right of the independent Arab states to form a union; and the right of Arab authorities in Palestine to eliminate the proposed Jewish homeland there.

Husayni was always accorded the respect due a head of state in Berlin, leading many historians to speculate he may have hoped to be the Axis’ fuhrer of the Middle East, had it won the war. But it didn’t, and as Germany surrendered, Husayni was arrested by the French.

Astonishingly, however, the French too treated Husayni with deference as a Grand Mufti with influence in the Muslim world. He was placed under house arrest in Paris and, when it became clear he might be indicted for war crimes based on testimony emerging at the Nuremburg trials, he secured an invitation from Egypt’s King Farouk and fled to Cairo.

Husayni went on to serve for decades in Egypt as a central member and ideological inspiration of the Muslim Brotherhood. His ideas have since passed on to generations of radical Islamists, far outlasting his own death in Syria in 1974 at the age of about 80.

What is the ultimate message of Husayni that was also so brutally expressed 69 years ago in the Farhud?

In its simplest terms, it is that the Near East is an Arab Sunni Muslim world that must be violently purged of all other elements.

The argument flies in the face of history in a region that has always been home to many religions and ethnicities. But it continues to be a justification for intimidation and attacks as fundamentalist groups today try to cleanse their home countries of “others” just as the Nazis once did in Europe.
http://www.rferl.org/content/Remembering_The_Farhud_The_Pogrom_That_Ended_Iraqi_Jewish_Life/2058848.html

The 1941 Farhoud was premeditated

The Farhoud of June 1941, in which rioting mobs murdered some 180 of Iraq’s Jewish citizens (as well as injuring, raping and pillaging) was premeditated, Salim Fattal’s documentary film on the modern history of the Jews of Iraq, The land that devours the inhabitants thereof, clearly reveals.

In the interval between the deposing of Rashid Ali, the pro-Nazi Prime Minister who had seized power in a coup, and the arrival of the pro-British Regent in the Iraqi capital, Muslim houses in Baghdad were daubed ‘Muslim’, while Jewish homes were marked with the ‘Hamsa’ (hand). When the Chief Rabbi of Iraq went to the authorities to voice his safety concerns, he was told that the Jews should barricade themselves in their houses with enough food for three days.

Eye-witnesses described how minibuses of Jews were emptied and their passengers slaughtered. The rioting started on the Jewish holiday of Shavuot and went on for two days.

The British army, who were encamped on the outskirts of Baghdad, could have intervened to stop the death and destruction. A Jewish translator working with them was told that the British army had no ‘instructions’ to intervene. It was only when the rioting began to endanger the established Muslim quarters of Baghdad that the British army swiftly quelled the disturbances.

The dead were buried hurriedly in a mass grave without the usual Jewish mourning practices. The Farhoud had a traumatic effect and marked the beginning of the end of the Jewish commmunity, which traced its history back to 586 BC. Within 10 years all but 6,000 of Iraq’s 150,000 Jews had fled.
http://jewishrefugees.blogspot.com/2006/11/1941-farhoud-was-premeditated.html

Babylonian Jewry Heritage Center production: The Farhud, part 1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JtGYucpUs9E
part 2
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BnzEs6-2jDE

The 1941 pogrom in the literature of Jews from Iraq
The Nazi pogrom of June 1941, known as the Farhud, was the Iraqi Jews’ very own Kristallnacht two days of murder, looting, rape and mutilation. It shattered this ancient community’s self-confidence, and swiftly led to the exodus of over 90 percent of Iraqi Jewry.
http://www.harif.org/moreh.html

During these centuries under Muslim rule, the Jewish Community had it’s ups and downs. By World War I, they accounted for one third of Baghdad’s population. In 1922, the British recieved a mandate over Iraq and began transforming it into a modern nation-state.

Iraq became an independent state in 1932. Throughout this period, the authorities drew heavily on the talents of the mall well-educated Jews for their ties outside the country and proficiency in foreign languages. Iraq’s first minister of finance, Yehezkel Sasson, was a Jew. These Jewish communities played a vital role in the development of judicial and postal systems.

In the 1936 Iraq Directory, the “Israelite community” is listed among the various other Iraqi communities, such as Arabs, Kirds, Turkmen, Muslims, Christians, Yazidis and Sabeans, and numbering at about 120,000. Hebrew is also listed as one of Iraq’s six languages.

Yet, following the end of the British mandate, the 2,700-year-old Iraqi Jewish community suffered horrible persecution, particularly as the Zionist drive for a state intensified. In June 1941, the Mufti-inspired, pro-Nazi coup of Rashid Ali sparked rioting and a pogrom in Baghdad during the Jewish Feast of Shavuot. Armed Iraqi mobs, with the complicity of the police and the army, murdered 180 Jews and wounded almost 1,000 in what became known as the Farhud pogrom. Immediately following, the British Army re-entered Baghdad, and success of the Jewish community resumed. Jews built a broad network of medical facilities, schools and cultural activity. Nearly all of the members of the Baghdad Symphony Orchestra were Jewish. Yet this flourisng environment abruptly ended in 1947, with the partition of Palestine and the fight for Israel’s independence. Outbreaks of anti-Jewish rioting regularly occurred between 1947 and 1949. After the establishment of Israel in 1948, Zionism became a capital crime.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/iraqijews.html

THE ANTI-JEWISH POGROM ON JUNE 1 2, 1941 “ALFARHUD.”

On June 1, the first day of Shavu’ot, which in Iraq was traditionally marked by joyous pilgrimages to the tomb of holy men and visits of friends and relatives, the Hashemite regent, ‘Abd al-Ilah, returned to the capital from his exile in Transjordan. A festive crowd of Jews crossed over the west bank of the Tigris River to welcome the returning prince. On the way back, a group of soldiers, who were soon joined by civilians, turned on the Jews and attacked them, killing one and injuring others. Anti-Jewish riots soon spread throughout the city, especially on the east bank of the Tigris, where most of the Jews lived. By nightfall, a major pogrom was under way, led by soldiers and paramilitary youth gangs, followed by a mob. The rampage of murder and plunder in the Jewish neighborhoods and business districts continued until the afternoon of the following day, when the regent finally gave orders for the police to fire upon the rioters and Kurdish troops were brought in to maintain order.

In the ” Farhud,” 179 Jews of both sexes and all ages were killed, 242 children were left orphans, and 586 businesses were looted, 911 buildings housing more than 12,000 people were pillaged. The total property loss was estimated by the Jewish community’s own investigating committee to be approximately 680,000 pounds.

The ” Farhud ” dramatically undermined the confidence of all Iraqi Jewry and, like the Assyrian massacres of 1933, had a highly unsettling effect upon all the Iraqi minorities. Nevertheless, many Jews tried to convince themselves that the worst was over. A factor in this was the commercial boom during the war, of which the Jewish business community was the prime beneficiary. Another factor was the tranquility which prevailed during the next years of the war. But the shadow of the ” Farhud ” continued to hover for years.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0010_0_09571.html

Farhud – the pogrom against iraqi jews, june 1941
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8IKNhJyR3Co

Association to commemorate The Sho’a – Holocaust of Arabian Jews

Iraq – Farhud:
In 1939 the leader of the Palestinian Arabs – The Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Muhammad Amin al – Husayni came to Baghdad. The Mufti began incitement against the Jews using all means: demonstrations, posters and the press. Hitler Youth leader, Baldor von Schirach, came to Baghdad, to coordinate his actions with the Mufti. Effective immediately, all post-primary schools students and teachers in Iraq were required to join the fascist movement “al- Fatwa”, an organization which included approximately 63,000 members.
On 1 April 1941 the Rashid Ali al-Cilani revolt broke in Iraq – during which the government was seized by a group of pro-Nazi army officers – led by Rashid Ali. On 1 June 1941 during the Pentecost the Farhud began – a pogrom conducted against the Jews of Baghdad. Several days earlier, the students of “al-Fatwa” marked the Jewish homes with a palm print (“Hamsa”) in red.
The Farhud events began June 1 morning when in al-Cerach, west of Baghdad, a delegation of prominent Jews returning from the reception given in honor of the return of the regent, Abd al Alah, in the flowers palace, was attacked. When the crowd left mosque Jamie al – Gilani, at approximately 10:30 am, incitement against Jews took place among those leaving. At 5:30 pm the crowd met again at that mosque. Speeches against the Jews were given. At 6 o’clock in the evening the crowd left the mosque and began to rampage.
179 Jews were killed in the pogrom, 2118 injured, 242 children were orphaned, and much property was looted. Historian Eli Cadoori counts the number of those murdered as 600. The number of people whose property was looted reached – 50,000 people. Victims were buried in a mass grave in Baghdad.
The British were able to recapture power in Iraq. The Mufti fled to Berlin.
http://www.shoaaj.com/158022/English

The Farhud: Roots of the Arab-Nazi Alliance in the Holocaust – Edwin Black – Dialog Press, 2010 – 192 pages
The Nazis needed oil. The Arabs wanted the Jews and British out of Iraq. The Mufti of Jerusalem forged a far-ranging alliance with Hitler resulting in the June 1941 Farhud, a Nazi-style pogrom in Baghdad that set the stage for the devastation and expulsion of the Iraqi Jews and ultimately almost a million Jews across the Arab world. The Farhud was the beginning of what became a broad Nazi-Arab alliance in the Holocaust.
http://books.google.com/books?id=h1cGQgAACAAJ

The Farhud, the anti-Jewish Baghdad riot of June 1 2, 1941, is the forgotten Holocaust-era pogrom explored in detail in Banking on Baghdad. …
http://www.bankingonbaghdad.com/farhud.php

Arab-Nazi ‘Farhud’: Holocaust in the Middle East | Spero News
http://www.speroforum.com/a/41285/ArabNazi-Farhud-Holocaust-in-the-Mideast

The Farhud: Roots of the Arab-Nazi Alliance during the Holocaust – C-SPAN Video Library
89 min – Dec 19, 2010
Edwin Black looks at “The Farhud,” a Nazi-Arab attempt to completely exterminate the Jews of Baghdad June 1-2, 1941.
http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/297544-1

Al-Farhud – Shmuel Moreh, Zvi Yehuda – [Magnes Press, Hebrew University] 2010
The present volume is being published on the 69th anniversary of the Farhud, the pogrom committed by religious and nationalist Arabs against the Jews of Iraq on the Jewish holiday of Pentecost (Shavu’ot), 1-2 June 1941 …by the Research Institute of Babylonian Jewry… This volume is a revised version of the Hebrew edition. It consists of papers on the pogrom and on the events leading up to it which were originally published in English, others which were written in Hebrew and now appear in English for the first time, and documents which have not been previously published, including an updated list of the names of victims of the Farhud and a map indicating the places in Baghdad where rioters attacked Jews. This book thus provides the English reader with comprehensive and updated information on the Farhud and constitutes a memorial to the innocent victims killed during these pogroms and whose only crime was that they were Jews.
http://books.google.com/books?id=jLKlSgAACAAJ

Baghdad revisited
By KSENIA SVETLOVA
06/18/2010 19:35

Shmuel Moreh’s recollections of his childhood.

Almost 70 years after the culmination of violent Arab hostilities against the Jewish minority in Iraq, the on-line memoirs of a Baghdad-born Israeli professor are finding resonance among Arab and Iraqi readers and evoking a discussion on what used to be the taboo subject of the 1941 pogrom against the Jews of Iraq.

“The year 1941 was one of the most tragic years in the life of the Jews of Iraq,” wrote Hebrew University emeritus professor of Arabic literature Shmuel Moreh in the London-based and Saudi-funded on-line magazine Elaph. “It was a year of quick changes in the political, economic and social relations between Arabs (Muslim and Christian) on one hand and the Jews on the other,” continued Moreh, chairman of the Association of Jewish Academics from Iraq and recipient of the 1999 Israel Prize in Middle Eastern studies.

“As a child who lived in the modern, aristocratic, mixed quarter of al-Batawin in Baghdad and a student at the Al-Sa’doon Exemplary School, established in 1937 as a government mixed school that was founded for children of the Iraqi royal family, ministers, high-ranking civil servants and army officers, judges and secretaries, I was a mirror of the government attitude toward the Jewish citizens in Iraq.”

Moreh, who was born in 1932 and now lives in Mevaseret Zion with his wife, Kaarina, was one of three Jewish pupils who studied there among a majority of Muslim staff and pupils.

“The Jews suffered daily harassment, insults and mockery. A few days after the defeat of the Iraqi army attacks against the British military bases in Habbaniya and Sin al-Dhubban, Jews were attacked in the streets, they were searched for espionage equipment and taken to police stations for questioning if they did not bribe the police. Their houses were marked as Jewish by anti-Jewish organizations,” wrote Moreh.

“In April 1941, Faisal, the son of prime minister Rashid Ali al-Kailani, tried to blind the eyes of the writer of these lines by hitting him with a stick. This was a well-known punishment for Jews who dared to resist Muslims. Two months later, he was able to narrowly escape being lynched by Muslims and Christians at his school in revenge for the defeat of the Iraqi army.”

Soon after these emotional words first appeared in Elaph, letters in Arabic started pouring in to Moreh’s private mailbox, along with hundreds of talkbacks on Elaph’s Web site that revealed how deeply touched the readers were. Some of the writers identified themselves as Iraqi academics, journalists, researchers. They wrote about their feelings of guilt and shame but also about nostalgia and the good old days. Despite the bitterness of the painful memories of the persecution and the eventual exodus, they urged Moreh to come back, stressing that Iraq is missing its Jews.

“This story was written by an Iraqi Jew… It reveals his love for Baghdad, for the Tigris and Euphrates… No one can understand the pain of living as a foreigner, only those who have tasted it,” said one talkback. […]
“I wanted to achieve three things by writing these memoirs,” he explains. “First of all, to remind the world of the persecution of Iraqi Jews. If anyone thinks that life was a paradise for us there, he could not be more mistaken. We were called names, harassed on a daily basis, and I lived through this hell during all of my childhood.

“The second goal was to preserve the Jewish Iraqi dialect. Nowadays when I talk to Iraqis or write to them, many of them are astonished to be reminded of forgotten words their grandfathers once used. The Jews of Iraq kept the medieval Arabic, whereas the Muslims adopted the Saudi accent that was brought to Iraq by the Beduin who assimilated into the Iraqi populace.

“And, of course, the most important thing was the memory,” Moreh says. “I wanted to perpetuate the memory of the Farhud and the tragedy that we lived through. Some people say that the exodus of the Iraqi Jews was sped up due to the acts of violence carried out by Jewish Zionist underground organization, but this is baseless. I studied the issue closely. Ever since the Farhud – the horrible Iraqi pogrom that took place in 1941 when angry crowds lashed out at the Jewish community, robbing, raping and killing thousands – we were always afraid that something like this might happen again. But even before that, the Iraqi Jews were always subjected to humiliations and threats, and that’s what I meant to emphasize in my memoirs. I believe that by publishing my memoirs in Elaph over a period of three years, I achieved this goal,” Moreh says.

The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism at the Hebrew University, and the Babylonian Jewry Heritage Center in Or-Yehuda recently published Al-Farhud: The 1941 Pogrom in Iraq, a book containing a series of papers on the theme, edited by Moreh and Zvi Yehuda. The work is a revised English edition of the Hebrew version, which was originally published in 1992.

“IN 1946 Jewish schools arranged an organized scout camp in northern Iraq. My friend Maurice Haddad and I were ordered to raise the Iraqi flag at the entrance of the camp. I saluted the flag and start singing the Iraqi anthem. I listened to Maurice sing and was horrified. He was cursing the flag, wishing it perdition. I was furious and tried to slap him on the face for insulting ‘our flag.’ He started weeping and shouted back, ‘Do you call it our flag? They killed my father when he tried to save my sister and mother from being raped.’ He was sobbing and murmuring all night long, ‘They raped my mother and sister and killed my father, and you tell me that this is our flag?'”

Today, after the three years of recollecting memories both sweet and painful, accepting and rejecting the past, writing, soul-searching and answering questions, the memoirs of Sami Muallem of Baghdad have reached their target audience – Arab intellectuals, historians, journalists and others who are reluctant to write off the Jewish chapter in the long history of the Arab world. The memoirs were reprinted in hundreds of various Arabic Web sites around the globe and have been read by hundreds of thousands of people. Moreh intends to translate and publish his memoirs in English and Hebrew.

The last chapter was published in Elaph in January 2010. However, the close relations that developed between Moreh and many of his readers continues to flourish. He is in touch with many Iraqi academics and journalists with whom he exchanges his views on the future of Iraqi Jews and their relationship with their old country.

As chairman of the Israeli Association of Jewish Academics from Iraq, Moreh is deeply concerned about the state of Jewish holy sites in Iraq and often uses his connections to prevent the ancient graves of Jewish prophets from being destroyed or desecrated.
http://www.jpost.com/Features/InThespotlight/Article.aspx?id=178785

BBC News – Farhud memories: Baghdad’s 1941 slaughter of the Jews1 June 2011 Last updated at 12:13 ET
Farhud memories: Baghdad’s 1941 slaughter of the Jews
By Sarah Ehrlich
Reporter, Witness
On 1 June 1941, a Nazi-inspired pogrom erupted in Baghdad, bringing to an end more than two millennia of peaceful existence for the city’s Jewish minority. Some Jewish children witnessed the bloodshed, and retain vivid memories 70 years later. The two days of violence that followed have become known as the Farhud (Arabic for “violent dispossession”). About 800 Jews were killed, spelling the end for a Jewish community that dated from the time of Babylon. … Some families bribed policemen to stand guard, paying half a dinar for each bullet fired. Others owe their lives to Muslims who took great risks to protect them.
Until the Farhud, Baghdad had been a model of peaceful coexistence for Jews and Arabs. Jews made up about one in three of the city’s population in 1941, and most saw themselves as Iraqi first and Jewish second.
So what caused this terrible turn of events? A month earlier, a pro-Nazi lawyer Rashid Ali al-Gilani, had overthrown Iraq’s royal family, and started broadcasting Nazi propaganda on the radio. But when an attack on a British Air Force base outside Baghdad ended in humiliating failure, he was forced to flee. The Farhud took place in the power vacuum that followed.
The anti-Semitism that Hitler had successfully exported to Iraq made life unbearable for the Jewish community. There were frequent arrests on false charges of spying and public hangings of prominent Jews. … In 1950, Jews were finally allowed to leave, on condition they give up all their property and assets, including their bank accounts. By 1952, only 2,000 of 150,000 were left.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13610702

Point of no return: US Holocaust Museum admits Nazi-Arab axis The Farhud (Arabic for violent dispossession), took place in 1941 when Arabs attacked Jews in several Iraqi cities, burning, raping, torturing and murdering …
http://jewishrefugees.blogspot.com/2006/11/us-holocaust-museum-admits-nazi-arab.html

History News Network Elie Kedourie has written that 600 Jews were murdered during the May, 1941 Baghdad Farhud, (in support of Kattan’s implication that many more than 300…
http://hnn.us/roundup/comments/41090.html

Remembering the Farhud… Today marks the 65th anniversary of the Farhud. Arabic for “violent dispossession,” this is the word used to describe the infamous pogrom of June 1, 1941
http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=22594

The Iraq coup of Raschid Ali in 1941, the Mufti Husseini and the Farhud (Farhoud) – the role of the Palestinian Grand Mufti, Haj Amin El Husseini* …
http://www.mideastweb.org/iraqaxiscoup.htm

[Re: NewYorkTimes 1962] Arab Nazism nothing has changed in 50 or 80 years

December 20, 2010

Arab Nazism nothing has changed in 50 or 80 years


Here’s a NyTimes article dating Dec. 1962, ‘the more things change the more they stay the same.’ – Give or take ’50 years.’



ISRAELI ACCUSES ARABS OF NAZISM; U.N. Envoy Sees Link to Modern Fascist Groups

By KATHLEEN TELTSCH Special to The New York Times ;
December 07, 1962,
, Section , Page 14, Column , words

UNITED NATIONS, N.Y., Dec. 6 Israel accused Arab representatives today of cooperating with neo-Nazi and fascist groups in the United States, Latin America and elsewhere “to exploit anti- Semitism as a political weapon.”
http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html? res=F70C1EFD3959137B93C5A91789D95F468685F9


Yes, you got that right, 1962 was before the (1967) six-day war which “gave” the Arabs/Muslims the opportunity (somehow) to come up with an excuse of the so called “fighting the occupation,” not that they didn’t massacre or call for genocide of Jews prior to that.


So are today’s unholy alliance between Islamists – Neo-Nazis when it comes to anti-Semitism, including “buying” into Hezbollah’s invented 911-conspiracy-theories, Arab world’s running of cartoons borrowed from the Nazi propagnada era like twisting around / altering facial features. Repeating old libels, etc.


Iran/Hezbollah’s massacre in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1994 at the AMIA building did it with the help of Neo-nazis in that country – no surprise, again.


Going back roughly nearly 80 years ago, We all know the tight Arab-Muslim nazism during WW2, spearheaded by the ‘religious’ devout racist Arab-Islamic leader the ex-Mufti Haj amin al-Husseini of Palestine, but this chapter doesn’t seem to be a mere historic past.

‘Ahmadinejad Hitler Comparison’ – Islamic Hitler

December 3, 2010

The ‘Ahmadinejad Hitler’ comparison has run from Germany’s A. Merkel, to Italy’s pres. to US officials, and beyond.

Islamic Hitler – Islamofascism

Over a Million hits on Islamic Hitler: “Ahmadinejad Hitler”

When searching http://www.google.com/search?q=ahmadinejad+hitler, you get: About 1,060,000 results on Google.

Among the most popular searched terms:

ahmadinejad hitler

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_____________

http://www.google.com/search?q=ahmadinejad+hitler

You can also search him in books (of course not connected to latest wikileaks revelation): http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=ahmadinejad%20%20hitler&um=1&ie=UTF-8&tbo=u&tbs=bks:1&source=og&sa=N&tab=wp


Der Spiegel: US officials called Ahmadinejad ‘Hitler’ – Israel …Nov 28, 2010 … News: German paper releases info from WikiLeaks ahead of time while Netanyahu assures public Israel has nothing to worry about, …
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3991029,00.html

John Hagee calls Ahmadinejad the ‘Hitler of the Middle East’ Mar 9, 2010 … Pastor reaffirms unwavering support for the Jewish state and Jewish people during his group’s annual Night to Honor Israel in J’lem.
http://www.jpost.com/IranianThreat/News/Article.aspx?id=170528

Christians… Ahmadinejad is new Hitler…Jul 18, 2007 … News: Christians United for Israel say to focus on diplomatic and economic means to dissuade Iran from developing nukes…
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3427247,00.html

During visit, Berlusconi draws parallel between Ahmadinejad and Hitler
Published 02:17 02.02.10 Latest update 02:17 02.02.10 During visit, Berlusconi draws parallel between Ahmadinejad and Hitler
By Nir Hasson

Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi drew a connecting line yesterday between his visit to the Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum in Jerusalem, the Iranian nuclear program, and Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad’s denial of the Holocaust and calls for Israel’s destruction.

“We must watch out,” the visiting premier said. “We’ve already had one such madman in history.”
http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/during-visit-berlusconi-draws-parallel-between-ahmadinejad-and-hitler-1.262576

Italian PM compares Ahmadinejad to Hitler
[September 22, 2008]
Italy's Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi implicitely compared Iran’s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to Adolf Hitler at an award ceremony in Paris.
http://www.ejpress.org/article/news/30448

From Hitler to Ahmadinejad: CEOs You Can Rely On
R. A. Cooper
Posted: January 29, 2010 11:32 AM
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rabbi-abraham-cooper/from-hitler-to-ahmadineja_b_432739.html

Peres to Obama: No choice but to compare Iran to Nazis – Haaretz …May 5, 2009 … “If Europe had dealt seriously with Hitler at that time, … and [Iranian President Mahmoud] Ahmadinejad is dividing the Muslim world.” …
http://www.haaretz.com/news/peres-to-obama-no-choice-but-to-compare-iran-to-nazis-1.275427

Iran as bad as Nazis: Merkel – Times Online Feb 5, 2006 … THE German chancellor, Angela Merkel, compared President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran to Adolf Hitler yesterday as Tehran vowed to resume the …
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article727156.ece

…Even German Chancellor Angela Merkel has compared Ahmadinejad to the Nazis.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1054236/Iran-protest-Israeli-minister-says-Yes-ok-kidnap-Ahmadinejad.html

Germany likens Ahmadinejad to Hitler, Feb 4, 2006 … Munich: President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is a rising Adolf Hitler with his stand on Iran's nuclear programme…
http://archive.gulfnews.com/indepth/irancrisis/more_stories/10016391.html

Iran Focus – Senator compares Iran's Ahmadinejad to Hitler, Sep 19, 2006 … WASHINGTON (Reuters) – A U.S. senator compared Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to Hitler and made fun of his name on Tuesday during a …
http://www.iranfocus.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=8695

Olmert compares Ahmadinejad to Hitler – Israel News, Ynetnews Apr 29, 2006 … News: In interview with German newspaper Bild, acting Prime Minister says Iranian president a 'psychopath of the worst kind… He speaks as Hitler did in his time of the extermination of the entire Jewish nation…
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3245121,00.html

Peres Compares Ahmadinejad to Hitler – Free Market News Network, President Peres of Israel is comparing Ahmadinejad to Hitler and Stalin saying that world should not ignore fact that Iran is developing …
http://www.freemarketnews.com/WorldNews.asp?nid=50444

Mitt Romney likened Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to Adolf Hitler in a speech on Thursday to Jewish university …
http://archive.newsmax.com/archives/ic/2007/4/27/80931.shtml

Inquiry and Analysis – No. 277
May 23, 2006 No. 277
Arab Media Reactions to Iran's Nuclear Project…
President Ahmadinejad was described as a new Hitler threatening to unleash catastrophe upon the world.
http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Area=ia&ID=IA27706&Page=archives

The Jawa Report: Hitler, Ahmadinejad, Neo Nazis, Just Logical Fellows. Apr 25, 2006 … Hitler, Ahmadinejad, Neo Nazis, Just Logical Fellows. … Next he encourages other Neo-Nazis to convert to Islam. …
http://mypetjawa.mu.nu/archives/173597.php

Newt Gingrich: Iran’s President is the New Hitler, Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich says that Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is as big a threat to global security as Adolf Hitler was in the …
http://archive.newsmax.com/archives/ic/2006/1/25/100038.shtml

GMANews.TV – Jewish leader calls Iran’s Ahmadinejad a '2nd Hitler' …BERLIN – The newly elected leader of Germany's main Jewish organization called Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad a "second Hitler"
http://www.gmanews.tv/story/8104/Jewish-leader-calls-Irans-Ahmadinejad-a-2nd-Hitler

Iran Hitler Ahmadinejad At Columbia Free Speech Or Incitement? Sep 24, 2007 Ya see, I live and work in Israel, a tiny, democratic nation in the Middle East which Ahmadinejad has sworn to "wipe my children off the map." Not really a nice thing of this dictator who fashions himself after Adolf Hitler with a twist of Islamic lemon to say.

Ahmadinejad's Iran is one of the world's leading sponsors of international terror, especially the Hizbullah gang in Lebanon, and he is now obsessed with building thermonuclear weapons with which he might just accomplish what Hitler could not: the annihilation of half the world's Jews with the push of a single button.

Ahmadinejad is also directly responsible for the murder of dozens of numbers of American troops in Iraq, whose killers, according to hundreds of reliable reports, he is arming and funding.

The US State Department calls Iran a state sponsor of terror, and Ahmadinejad has called the Holocaust “a myth'' and urges for Israel to be destroyed.
http://www.israelnewsagency.com/iranahmadinejadcolumbianewyorkisraelfreedomspeechincitementadlhitler48092307.html

Never Again?

By Charles Krauthammer
Friday, May 5, 2006; Page A19
…But in a cruel historical irony, doing so required concentration — putting all the eggs back in one basket, a tiny territory hard by the Mediterranean, eight miles wide at its waist. A tempting target for those who would finish Hitler's work.

His successors now reside in Tehran. The world has paid ample attention to President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's declaration that Israel must be destroyed. Less attention has been paid to Iranian leaders' pronouncements on exactly how Israel would be "eliminated by one storm," as Ahmadinejad has promised…
As it races to acquire nuclear weapons, Iran makes clear that if there is any trouble, the Jews will be the first to suffer. "We have announced that wherever [in Iran] America does make any mischief, the first place we target will be Israel," said Gen. Mohammad Ebrahim Dehghani, a top Revolutionary Guards commander. Hitler was only slightly more direct when he announced seven months before invading Poland that, if there was another war, "the result will be . . . the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe."

…Bernard Lewis, America's dean of Islamic studies, who just turned 90 and remembers the 20th century well, confessed that for the first time he feels it is 1938 again. He did not need to add that in 1938, in the face of the gathering storm — a fanatical, aggressive, openly declared enemy of the West, and most determinedly of the Jews — the world did nothing.

When Iran's mullahs acquire their coveted nukes in the next few years, the number of Jews in Israel will just be reaching 6 million. Never again?
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/04/AR2006050401458.html?sub=AR

Israel: Iran trying to do 'what Adolf Hitler did to Jewish people'
Times Online – ‎Apr 21, 2009
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article6142841.ece

Israel pledges to protect itself from 'new Holocaust' threat posed by Iran's nuclear programme
Israel has warned Tehran that it is ready to be "the shield" defending Jewish people from a "new Holocaust" threat posed by Iran's nuclear programme.  21 Apr 2009
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/israel/5195326/Israel-pledges-to-protect-itself-from-new-Holocaust-threat-posed-by-Irans-nuclear-programme.html

Israel marks Holocaust, warns new 'Hitler' has arrived Israel Today (April 21, 2009)
http://www.israeltoday.co.il/default.aspx?tabid=178&nid=18630

Another Ahmadinejad-Hitler Parallel

IBD Editorials

Posted 08/04/2010 06:46 PM ET

Iran: President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has much in common with Adolf Hitler — hatred of Jews, warmongering, delusions of divine inspiration. Now add this: His own people have tried to blow him to smithereens.

After surviving the July 20, 1944, plot on his life at his field headquarters near Rastenburg (now Ketrzyn) in Poland, Hitler said: “I take this as confirmation of my assignment from Providence to continue to pursue my life’s goal as I have done hitherto.” Historians believe that afterwards nearly 5,000 people were executed by the Gestapo.

When the news spread of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad surviving a homemade bomb being tossed at his convoy in Hamedan in western Iran Wednesday, some Iranian opposition groups were acting as if Tehran’s 21st century Gestapo, the Revolutionary Guards, might similarly come after them.

A representative of a faction of the National Council of Resistance of Iran, asked if his group was involved, told London’s Daily Mail: “Absolutely not, absolutely not. It has nothing to do with us.”

Indeed, Ahmadinejad recently declared, Fuhrer-like, that “the regime has only one party, which is the velayat” — a term used in many Islamic countries and derived from the Arabic for “to govern.”

That’s not too far removed from “ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Fuhrer!”

And, like Hitler, Ahmadinejad and Iran’s Supreme Leader, the Ayatollah Khamenei, have put their jackboots where their mouths are, successfully putting down the popular demonstrations last summer after Ahmadinejad’s fraudulent re-election.

Of course, there were many attempts on Hitler’s life, the most interesting being Georg Elser’s planting of a homemade bomb at the Burgerbraukeller in Munich in late 1939, which detonated right on schedule but failed because Hitler chose not to be as long-winded as usual .

A carpenter of modest education, Elser was motivated by the deep resentment he felt over Nazi restrictions on German workers’ freedom to organize themselves. Much the same kind of resentment has been on the rise among ordinary Iranians.

“It’s far too early to say that it’s the first stirring of a significant rebellion against the regime since last summer’s post-election upheaval,” the National Council of Resistance said several weeks ago of strike action organized by store owners in Tehran’s traditional bazaar. “But unlike that upsurge, which involved millions of unhappy pro-reformist voters, this time it’s the bazaar, Iran’s commercial class, that is showing signs of unhappiness.”

The opposition coalition also pointed out that “back in 1978, when the anti-Shah revolution got going, it was the bazaar that provided the muscle.” The group added that “there could emerge an alliance between the bazaar, the clergy, and the reformists” and warned, “it’s clear that something important is happening.”
http://www.investors.com/NewsAndAnalysis/Article/542707/201008041846/Another-Ahmadinejad-Hitler-Parallel.aspx

Arab Islamic “Palestinian” Leader Jamal Husseini: “America is aour greatest enem.” (1946)

December 1, 2010

JAMAL HUSSEINI
(1892-1982)

Arab Islamic “Palestinian” Leader


Members of the Arab Higher Committee
right to left: Ahmad Shukeiri, Hussein al-Khaldi, Jamal Husseini, Ahmed Halmi (holding a walking stick), Yusuf Heykal (mayor of Jaffa)


Brief Bio


Born in 1892; graduate from the Anglican School in Jerusalem; studied medicine at the American University of Beirut but was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I; served after the war in the British Military Government in the health department, as local adviser to the Governor of Nablus and as assistant to the Governor of Ramleh; was member of both, the Nadi al-Arabi and the Mun-tada al-Adabi organizations in 1918/19; later member of the pro-Husseini majle-siyoun faction; elected representative to the 6th Congress of the Arab Executive Committee (June 1923, Jaffa) for Jerusalem and to the 7th (June 1928) for Bethlehem; elected secretary of the Executive Committee at the congresses from 1920-1928; secretary of the Supreme Muslim Council from 1927-30; suspected by the Jews of organising the revolt of 1929; member of the Palestinian Delegation to London in 1930; organizer and chairman of the Mufti’s Palestine Arab party, established in 1935; member of the Arab Higher Committee in Palestine 1936-37 and its representative to the UN 1947-48; Mufti’s representative and president of the Palestinian delegation to the London Conference, St. James’s Palace, February 1939; in 1940-41 active among Palestinian exiles in Iraq; caught by the British after escape from Iraq and exiled to Southern Rhodesia; returned to Palestine in 1946 and elected vice president of the Arab Higher Executive (Fourth Higher Committee of the Arab League); reorganized his party and formed its paramilitary youth organization al-Futuwwa; named foreign minister to the All-Palestine Government, established in 1948; from the late 50’s to 70’s worked as consultant to Saudi Arabia; died on July 3, 1982.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/JHusseini.html


* Grand Mufti’s associate in Nazi-collaboration.

* Involved in [Rashid Ali al-Gailani’s] pro-Nazi coup.


A safe haven: Harry S. Truman and the founding of Israel – Page 213 – Allis Radosh, Ronald Radosh, HarperCollins, 2009, p, 213


Emil Ghouri, the head of the Arab delegation to UNSCOP, and delegates Wasef Kamal and Rasem Khalidi as “notorious for … association with the Mufti and his Axis activities.”

Mufti’s Jamal Husseini… had joined the Mufti in Iraq in 1939… organized a pro-Axis fifth column that led to the anti-British rebellion.

[…] In the Hague, Arab students were trained in explosives and parachuted into Turkey, Syria, and Iraq.

http://books.google.com/books?id=B3SmdKOSPQEC&pg=PA213


* Founding the ‘Palestine Arab Party,’ boasting as being inspired by German Nazism.

* His Nazi Scouts: al-Futuwwa.


The PLO: the rise and fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Volume 1984, Part 2
Jillian Becker, [Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984] Page 19




In March 1935 the Husseinis also formed a party, called the Palestinian Arab Party.
It was, as its president Jamal Husseini freely boasted, inspired by German Nazism. It included a ‘youth troop’, modelled on the Hitler Youth, for a while actually called the ‘Nazi Scouts’.

http://books.google.com/books?cd=1&id=H7BtAAAAMAAJ&dq=jamal+husseini

http://books.google.com/books?cd=1&id=H7BtAAAAMAAJ&dq=Nazi+Scouts

Righteous victims: a history of the Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881-1999 – Page 124 – Benny Morris – [Random House, Inc] 1999 – 751 pages


… the Husseinis in March 1935 formed the Palestinian Arab Party, whose platform for resistance to the establishment of a Jewish National Home. It set up its own youth corps. al-Futuwwa (the name of an association of Arab knights during the Middle Ages). which resembled Germany’s Hitler Youth and was officially designated the “Nazi Scouts.” At Ihe founding meeting 011 February 11, 1936, Jamal al- Husseini, a principal aide of Hajj Amin, declared that Hitler had stalled out with only six followers and now had sixty million. The fisrt seventy al-Futuwwa recruits took the following oath: “Life — my right: independence — my aspiration: Arabism — my principle: Palestine — my country, and there is no room in it for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness.”
The Husseini-Nazi connection… through the 1930s and early 1940s.

http://books.google.com/books?id=jGtVsBne7PgC&pg=PA124


Armies of the young: child soldiers in war and terrorism By David M. Rosen, page 106


…Palestinian students educated in Germany returned to Palestine determined to found the Arab Nazi Party. The Husseinis used the Palestinian Arab Party to establish the al-Futuwwa youth corps, which was named after an association of Arab Nazi Scouts. By 1936 the Palestinian Arab Party was sponsoring the developments of storm troops patterned on the German model. These storm troops, all children and youth, were to be outfitted in black trousers and red shirts… The young recruits took the following oath: “Life — my right; independence — my aspiration; Arabism — my country, and there is no room in it for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness.”
[…]
The al-Futuwwa youth groups connected Palestinian youth to fascist youth movements elsewhere in the Middle East. While the Mufti was establishing youth groups in Palestine, al-Futuwwa groups were established in Iraq.
http://books.google.com/books?id=zQYQ0tho6mAC&pg=PA106



A durable peace: Israel and its place among the nations – Page 209 – Binyamin Netanyahu – 2000 – 482 pages


during this period in Damascus would appreciate the inclination of the Arab people to Nazism, for Nazism was the power … the Palestinian Arab party, which party leader Jamal Husseini asserted was based on the Nazi model

http://books.google.com/books?id=sj5DqVLshOUC&pg=PA209


* Deputy of AHC (Arab Higher Committee).

* Stated in 1946: “America is our greatest enemy.”

* Declared a suicidal Jihad – British weren’t impressed!


1948: a history of the first Arab-Israeli war
Benny Morris [Yale University Press] 2008, pages: 34, 59, 82, 89



[p. 34]

One Foreign Office cable, in the wake of the report, spoke of Arab hatred of the Jews as being greater than that of the Nazis. The AHC—in a letter from Jamal Husseini to Attlee—issued an “ultimatum” and threatened “jihad.” In a follow-up interview with British high commissioner Sir Alan Cunningham, Husseini declared his willingness “to die” for the cause. When Cunningham responded that this didn’t really trouble him and that what worried him was the welfare of “the ordinary Arab population,” Husseini rejoined that “they were prepared to die too.”


 The publication of the report triggered violent demonstrations in Baghdad and Palestine; in Beirut, the US Information Center was set on fire. At least one Baghdad newspaper called for jihad: “The Arabs must proclaim a [p. 35] crusade [that is, holy war] to save the Holy Land from [the] western gang which understands only the language of force.” Another called on the Arabs to “annihilate all European Jews in Palestine. The AAC report was officially condemned by the Arab League Council meeting at Bludan, Syria on 8-10 June 1946.

http://books.google.com/books?id=CC7381HrLqcC&pg=PA34
[p. 59]

AHC representative Jamal Husseini put it: “America is our greatest enemy.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=CC7381HrLqcC&pg=PA59


[p. 82]
The AHC theoretically functioned as a cabinet, with the exiled Haj Amin al-Husseini as president and Jamal Husseini as his deputy.

http://books.google.com/books?id=CC7381HrLqcC&pg=PA82


[p. 89]

The Futuwwa was founded at the end of 1935 by Jamal Husseini as the Arab Party’s youth corps; the Nazi Party or the Hitlerjugend appear to have been his model..

http://books.google.com/books?id=CC7381HrLqcC&pg=PA89

ARAB MUSLIM NAZISM – DOCUMENTATION: Your reference Guide

November 26, 2010

ARAB MUSLIM NAZISM – DOCUMENTATION


In GeneralSome of the groupsPan-Arabism & NazismIrony of non-Aryan “inferior” Arabs’, Bosnians’ racesArab Nazi PartiesGrand MuftiRashid AliUmmarAl-Banna / Muslim BrotherhoodReza Pahlevi – IranIbn Saud / S. ArabiaKing Farouk / EgyptShakib ArslanYoung EgyptBaathKhairallah Tuflahal-MiqdadiAl-Sabawial-Muthanna Club & al-FutuwwaSSNPNajjadaHandscharAdmiration & worshipping


IN GENERAL



  
An Urgent Wakeup Call 
Jihad and Jew-Hatred: Islamism, Nazism, and the Roots of 9/11, by Matthias Küntzel, trans. Colin Meade, Telos Press, 2007, 180 pp.
Reviewed by Amnon Lord [2008]

“We were the first to think of translating Mein Kampf,” wrote Sami al-Jundi, a leader of the Syrian Ba’ath Party in the 1930s. “Whoever lived during this period in Damascus would appreciate the inclination of the Arab people to Nazism, for Nazism was the power which could serve as its champion” (26). Al-Jundi also confessed that “we were racist, admiring Nazism, reading its books and the sources of its thought, particularly Nietzsche, Fichte, and H. S. Chamberlain” (25).


How many people know that Arab delegations and senior political figures were invited to the annual Nazi rallies in Nuremberg during the 1930s? Such details are not simply random anecdotes from the remote past. Indeed, in his new book Jihad and Jew-Hatred, German scholar Matthias Küntzel argues that the origins of the Islamist terror of recent years, which culminated in the attacks on the United States on 11 September 2001, and of the radical anti-Semitic ideologies of Hamas, Hizballah, Iran, the Palestine Covenant, and al-Qaeda, lie in the lethal link between Islamism and Nazism.
http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DRIT=3&DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&FID=253&PID=0&IID=2330&TTL=Amnon_Lord_on_Jihad_and_Jew-Hatred:__Islamism,_Nazism,_and_the_Roots_of_9/11,_by_Matthias_K%C3%BCntzel


The Nazi-Islamist Connection – Herbert Eiteneier, JCPA


Palestinian maps, including in textbooks, do not show Israel at all; Palestinian sources omit the Mufti’s role in Nazism and deny the Holocaust, …

http://www.jcpa.org/phas/phas-eiteneier-s06.htm


Der Spiegel, 05/23/2007

World War II
New Research Taints Image of Desert Fox Rommel

By Jan Friedmann

Arabs Shouted “Heil Rommel”



Hitler was celebrated in large parts of the Arab world, and some newspapers even likened him to the Prophet. The Desert Fox was almost as popular as Hitler. “Heil Rommel” was a common greeting in Arab countries.



Many Arabs thought the Germans would free them from the rule of the old colonial powers France and Britain. Hitler had shown how to burst the shackles of the Treaty of Versailles. After Germany defeated France in 1940, chants against the French and British echoed around the streets of Damascus: “No more Monsieur, no more Mister, Allah’s in Heaven and Hitler’s on earth.”



Adolf Hitler assured the exiled Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Muhammad Amin al-Husseini, at a meeting in Berlin in November 1941 that his goal was the “destruction of Jewry living in Arabia.” The Führer had racist objections to Arabs as well, though. He declined to shake the Mufti’s hand and refused to drink coffee with him.



Hitler nevertheless provided the Mufti, who later sponsored Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, with a budget of 750,000 Reichsmark per month to foment Jihad in Palestine. In an example of ideological flexibility, the SS even recruited Muslim volunteers and declared that the Muslims living in the Balkans belonged to the “racially valuable” peoples of Europe.

http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,484510,00.html

Indigenous Indians: Agastya to Ambedkar, by Koenraad Elst, [Voice of India] 1993, 483 pages, Page 353 [8185990042, 9788185990040]



Young Fidel Castro would imitate Mussolini in front of the mirror. The secularist Baath Party in Syria and Iraq was modelled on Mussolini’s Fascist Party. The Iranian Shah Reza Pahlevi was an open admirer of Hitler (for which he was forced by the British to abdicate in favour of his son).

nbsp;The Muslims in particular were enthusiastic. …Muslim nations rallied to ally with Hitler: the Bosnian Muslims, the Kalmuks, the Chechen and Ingosh, the Balkans, the Meshkets, and the Krim Tatars. In West Asia, prominant leaders like the Druze leader Shakib Arslan (Walid Jumblatt’s father) and the Mufti of Jerusalem allied themselves with Hitler.

http://books.google.com/books?id=exVuAAAAMAAJ&q=Muslims


The war aims and strategies of Adolf Hitler – Page 161 – Oscar Pinkus – 2005 – 537 pages



The sympathies for Hitler extended all the way from the Islamic Bosnians and Albanians in Europe to the Arab countries in Africa and…

http://books.google.com/books?id=gPnjXC1lEJ8C&pg=PA161


Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11 – Pages 10-11 – Matthias Küntzel – 2007 – 180 pages


Male supremacy, sexual repression, the celebration of jihad and the glorification of a martyr’s death in war with unbelievers (al-Banna celebrated “the art of death”) and hatred of the Jews all created points of commonality with fascism and Nazism…

http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PR10





Pan-Arabism & Nazism

Arab-Jewish relations: from conflict to resolution? : essays in honour of Moshe Ma’oz, Elie Podeh, Asher Kaufman – [Sussex Academic Press] 2005 [ISBN 1903900689, 9781903900680] – Page 136



King Faysal I was far as can be imagined from anti-Semitism…. Faysal was highly popular with Jews, who saw in him their protector. But soon after King Ghazi (1933-39) took over things deteriorated. The young king, while not explicitly ant-Semitic, moved very close to radical pan-Arab and pro-Nazi circles. At least two of the royal family’s members outdid even the Nazi senior representative in Baghdad, …

http://books.google.com/books?id=MOzJeyjF2_UC&pg=PA136


Independent Iraq, 1932-1958: a study in Iraqi politics – Majid Khadduri – 1960 – 388 pages – Page 240


They held a conference late in October in which it was decided that their struggle to achieve the pan-Arab mission should be continued in collaboration with the Axis Powers

http://books.google.com/books?&id=uh4xAAAAIAAJ&dq=common+enemy


The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini By Chuck Morse – Page 28 – 2003 – 186 pages


The pan-Arabist seeks a world empire based on the Islamic faith with the Arab language and culture serving as the centerpiece. Likewise, the Nazi pan-Aryan sought a world empire with a mystical concept of the Germanic race serving as

http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA16





Among the many various Arab pro-Nazi, fascist groups

  • The Iron Shirts (led by Fakhri al-Barudi of the National Bloc).
  • The League for National Action (headed by Abdu al-Huda al-Yab, Dr. Zaki al-Jabi and others).
  • The An-Nadi al-Arabi Club of Damascus (headed by Dr. Said Abd Al-Fattah al-Imam).
  • The Councils for the Defense of Arab Palestine (head by well known pro-Nazi leaders, such as Nabi al-Azmah, Adil Arslan and others)
  • The Syrian People’s Party.
  • The Istiqlal.
  • The Muthana Club.
  • Moslem Guidance Society.
  • The Palestine Defense Society.
  • The Tajaddad Club.
  • The Arab Rover Society.
  • Arab High Committee (Haj Amin el Husseini’s).
  • Najjada [Najjadah] in Lebanon (pan-Islamic, pan-Arab).
  • The Futuwwah in Iraq (Hitler-youth type).
  • The Blue Shirts and Green Shirts in Egypt.
  • League of National Action.
  • The Lion Cubs of Arabism.
  • The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (led by Antun Sa’ada with Nazi imitated symbols and hymm of ‘Syria, Syria Uber alles).
  • The Arab Club.
  • The Steel Shirts.
  • The early Ba’ath movement.
  • The Kalmuks.
  • The Chechens.
  • The Ingosh.
  • Balkans.
  • The Meshkets.
  • The Krim Tatars
  • The White Shirts (in Lebanon).

The Arab war effort: a documented account By American Christian Palestine Committee, 1946, p. 7

IN SYRIA AND THE LEBANON connections between certain groups of Syrian leaders and the Axis States were of long standing…. the Iron Shirts (led by Fakhri al-Barudi of the National Bloc, still a member of the Syrian parliament in 1946); the League for National Action (headed by Abdu al-Huda al-Yab, Dr. Zaki al-Jabi and others); the An-Nadi al-Arabi Club of Damascus (headed by Dr. Said Abd Al-Fattah al-Imam); the Councils for the Defense of Arab Palestine (head by well known pro-Nazi leaders, such as Nabi al-Azmah, Adil Arslan and others); the Syrian People’s Party…

http://books.google.com/books?&id=fxzPAAAAMAAJ&dq=well+known+pro-Nazi

page 33

With the stimulus that the ex-Mufti exerted and with the German armies sweeping victoriously over the Continent of Europe, the Muthana Club, Moslem Guidance Society, the Palestine Defense Society, the Tajaddad Club, and the Arab Rover Society, to quote the names of but a few bodies and societies, intensified their pro-Nazi subversive activities in the hopes that by so doing they would eventually, through enemy assistance, realize their Pan-Arab aspirations.
http://books.google.com/books?id=KGMZAAAAIAAJ&dq=defense+of+palestine

Die Welt des Islams, 1985, [Wild, Stefan. “National Socialism in the Arab near East between 1933 and 1939.”] p. 127

In the following section I shall describe five parties and movements in the Arab word which to a greater or lesser degree had taken over certain elements of National Socialism or Fascism, namely the Baath (Ba’th)- Party, the Syrian Socialist Nationalist Party, the Kataeb (katd’ib), Young Egypt (Misr al-Fatdh) and the Futuwwa. I shall then concentrate briefly on ideological factors like the influence of Friedrich Nietzsche, the concept of the “strong nation”, racialism and European antisemitism.
http://books.google.com/books?&id=bQcsAAAAIAAJ&dq=five+parties
[PDF] http://www.tcd.ie/history//undergraduate/pdf/bwwii/jstorarticles/Stefan%20Wild%20National%20Socialims%20in%20the%20Arab%20Middle%20East%201933%201939.pdf


Letter to an Arab friend By André Chouraqui, Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1972

In 1936… That year an Arab High Committee was formed in the month of April and was presidedover by the mufti, Hadz Amin el Husseini. It included the most reactionary elements of the Arab world and enleashed a revolt which transformed Palestine into a stronghold occupied by more than twenty thousand British soldiers. These Arab elements had been inspired by Fascists and Nazis, a fact since established by the publication of the secret Wilhemstrasse Archives. The Arab High Committee had receieved the financial support of the Nazis and Fascists who financed the revolt, with the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el Husseini, acting as intermediary. Hitler and his police achieved in Palestine what they had attempted throughout the Arab world (against the Jews)

http://books.google.com/books?id=l6FoAeIPcuEC&pg=PA108


Confronting fascism in Egypt: dictatorship versus democracy in the 1930s – Page 273 – I. Gershoni, James P. Jankowski – 2009 – 344 pages



The activities of the radical youth organization al-Futuwwa are considered a a manifestation of Nazi youth indoctrination practices, and speeches supporting Nazism delivered in Baghdad’s Pan-Arab al- Muthanna Club perceived as reflecting popular support for Nazi Germany among the Iraqi effendiyya.

In Syria, studies analyzing the process of radicalization in the 1930s often highlight pro-fascist tendencies among various newly created nationalist [p. 274] organizations. These tendencies are seen as having manifested themselves particularly in the mushrooming of new radical youth organizations such as the League of National Action, the Lion Cubs of Arabism, the Syrian Social Nationalist Party led ny Antun Sa’ada, the Arab Club, the Steel Shirts, the early Ba’ath movement, and various radical Islamic organizations. In Lebanon, the White Shirts, the najjada…

http://books.google.com/books?id=Aukt0sWDJcsC&pg=PA273

Del fuego: Sephardim and the Holocaust – Solomon Gaon, M. Mitchell Serels – 1995 – 258 pages [Page 114] Publisher Sepher-Hermon Press, 1995 [ISBN 0872031438, 9780872031432

…in Syria and Lebanon, we found for example the Iron Shirts, the League of National Action, the Ah-Nadi al-Arabi Club of Damascus, the Councils for the Defense of Arab Palestine, headed at the time by the well known pro-Nazi leaders such as NabichAl-Azma and Adil Arslan. There was the Syrian Popular Party which was led at the time by a well known Fascist, Anton Saade. He escaped during the war to Germany, and from there with the help of …the principal party is Syria and more particularly the Istiqlal group headed by Shukri al…

http://books.google.com/books?id=3rMWAQAAIAAJ&q=arslan

Cuadernos de historia mundial: : Volume 5, Issue 1 – International Commission for a History of the Scientific and Cultural Development of Mankind, 1959, p. 240

The years of the Second World War saw the struggle of democracy against Nazi-Fascist totalitarianism, with Arab sympathies tipped in favour of the latter, not because of any …The National Syrian Party in Syria and Lebanon, the Kata’ib al-Lubnaniyyah (The Lebanese Phalanges), and the Najjadah in Lebanon, the Futuwwah in Iraq, and the Blue Shirts and Green Shirts in Egypt, were among the most conspicuous of these organizations–all appeared in the fourth decade of the century. The peninsula continued to be isolated and immune to such currents, though enjoying its own theocratic totalitarianism, Islam.

http://books.google.com/books?&id=BrcfAQAAIAAJ&dq=najjadah

(Cahiers d’histoire mondiale: Journal of world history. Cuadernos de historia mundial. v.1-14; juil. 1953-1972, Volume 5, Author: Unesco
Publisher: Éditions de la Baconnière, 1959, p. 240


http://books.google.com/books?&id=VvwIAQAAIAAJ&q=futuwwah

Studies in Asian history: proceedings
Author: Indian Council for Cultural Relations
Publisher: Asia Pub. House [for] Indian Council for Cultural Relations, 1969,
p. 412


http://books.google.com/books?id=2lrRAAAAMAAJ&q=nazi)

A History of Fascism, 1914-1945 – by Stanley G. Payne – 1996, p.
352


The Fascist regime had him proclaimed a “hero of Islam” and “defender of Islam” in Italian Libya, where a parallel Libyan Arab Fascist Party was created.
If Mussolini supported Zionists to some extent as a lever against the British Empire, both he and Hitler subsidized Haj Amin el Husseini, the violently anti-Jewish grand mufti of Jerusalem. Anti-Jewish feeling mounted in parts of
the Middle East during the 1930s, as the Fascist and Nazi regimes and doctrines made increasing sense to many Arab nationalists. King Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia sought German arms and contacts and was favorably received. Various delegations
of Syrians and Iraqis attended the Niirnberg party congresses, and there were several different Arabic translations of Mein Kampf. Both the German and Italian regimes were active in propaganda in the Arab world, and there was much pro-German sentiment in Egypt. At least seven different Arab nationalist groups had developed shirt movements by 1939 (white, gray, and iron in Syria; blue and
green in Egypt; … Syrian… Iraqi Futuwa… Young Egypt Movement … all three were territorially expansionist, with Sami Shawkat, the Futuwa ideologue, envisioning the “Arab nation” as eventually covering half the globe (though by
vonversion…
http://books.google.com/books?id=NLiFIEdI1V4C&pg=PA352





Ironically, Arabs, or even Slavic-Muslims were considered “inferior” to Nazi Aryans


The Mufti of Jerusalem: Haj Amin al-Husseini and the Palestinian National Movement, by Philip Mattar, [Columbia University Press] 1992



…Nazis viewed the Arabs with contempt. Arabs in Germany received the discriminatory treatment consistent with Nazi racial theories…

http://books.google.com/books?id=XH8qTS5xNUIC&pg=PA100

War aims in the second world war: the war aims of the major belligerents, 1939-45, by Victor Rothwell, Edinburgh University Press, 2005
[ISBN 0748615032, 9780748615032, 244 pages] p. 41


… However, the Nazis were clear in their minds that the Arabs were racially inferior, and there would, therefore, be no pleasure to be had from helping them in anything except for the extermination of Jews in their region.
http://books.google.com/books?id=XfgLbSc94MEC&pg=PA41

SS: Hell on the Western Front – Page 70 – Chris Bishop, Michael Williams – 2003 – 192 pages



On the face of it, Slavic Muslims from southern Europe did not fit too well into the Nazi racial ideology of the Master Race. However, as so often happened, Himmler came up with his own crackpot theories to make them acceptable. Bosnian …

http://books.google.com/books?id=iqWZov065T4C&pg=PA70


Arafat: in the eyes of the beholder – Janet Wallach, John Wallach – [Carol Pub. Group] 1997 – 534 pages – Page 66



The Nazis showed great contempt for the dark-skinned Arabs, even calling them a lower form of life; Adolph Hitler had gone so far as to describe the Arabs as “half apes.”
http://books.google.com/books?&id=_ZrtAAAAMAAJ&q=APES





Arab Nazi Parties

Jamal Husseini



Highlights:



* Arab Nazi movements all over the Middle East.



* Istiqlal movement pushing for Nazi style youth organizations.



* Arab activists of Iraq (like: Abdul Ghaffur el-Bedri, publisher of the newspaper Istiqlal), Palestine (represented by Joseph Francis of the al-Ahram) attempt to found ‘Arab Nazi Parties’ – first rejected by the German Nazis.



* Establishing of the Palestine ‘Arab Nazi Party.’ Jamal Husseini.

The Nazi ‘Hitler youth’ modelled “Futuwwa” in Palestine ‘Nazi Scouts.’




Middle Eastern Myths – “The Myth of Yasser Arafat” by Dr. Richard Booker


During the war, Arab Nazi parties were founded throughout the Middle East.
http://www.rbooker.com/articles/TheMythofYasserArafat.PDF


First things: Issues 154-158, Institute on Religion and Public Life – 2005 – [Page 14]



Several of the Arab political parties founded during the 1930s were modeled after the Nazi party, including the Syrian Popular Party and the Young Egypt Society, which were explicitly anti-Semitic in their ideology and programs. …

http://books.google.com/books?id=4-gnAAAAYAAJ&q=modeled

The third Reich & the Palestine question,” Francis R. Nicosia, Transaction Publishers, 2000, pages 90-91


[page 90]

After 1933, there were attempts in the Arab world to establish political parties based on Fascist or Nationa Socialist principles and organization. Both [German representatives: Fritz] Grobba and [Heinrich] Wolf were approached in 1933 by individuals with plans to create National Socialist parties in Iraq and Palestine, respectively. The Palestine correspondent of the news-paper Al-Ahram, Joseph Francis, represented a group of Palestinian Arabs who were interested in establishing such a party. Francis wrote to Wolf in April, 1933, requesting the help of the Consulate-General in this endeavor. In Baghdad, a similar overture was made to Fritz Grobba by Abdul Ghaffur el-Bedri, publisher of the newspaper Istiqlal, and a group of his supporters, Wolf’s strong opposition to any sort of German encouragement or support for an Arab Nazi party in Palestine was conveyed in a note to the Foreign Office in Berlin in June, 1933,… In Berlin, the Foreign Office concurred with Wolf’s opposition to Arab efforts to involve Germany in the creation of an Arab National party in Palestine… provided the rationale behind the instructions issued to Wolf on the matter…

The objections that Herr Wolf has raised against the promotion of an Arab National Socialist movement by official German representatives are fully supported here. Given the notorious political unreliablity of the Arabs”

[page 91]

Wolf was instructed to discourage contact between pro-Nazi Arabs and the various Ortsgruppen [local branches] of the NSDAP in Palestine, to which many Palastinadeutche were beginning to flock…

http://books.google.com/books?id=8X2G1G_jD-4C&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90

The PLO: the rise and fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Volume 1984, Part 2
Jillian Becker, [Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984] Page 19




In March 1935 the Husseinis also formed a party, called the Palestinian Arab Party.
It was, as its president Jamal Husseini freely boasted, inspired by German Nazism. It included a ‘youth troop’, modelled on the Hitler Youth, for a while actually called the ‘Nazi Scouts‘.

http://books.google.com/books?cd=1&id=H7BtAAAAMAAJ&dq=jamal+husseini

http://books.google.com/books?cd=1&id=H7BtAAAAMAAJ&dq=Nazi+Scouts

The case for Israel – Alan M. Dershowitz – [John Wiley and Sons] 2003 – Biography & Autobiography – 264 pages – Page 54


… Husseini organized the “Nazi Scouts,” based on the “Hitler Youth …

http://books.google.com/books?id=Dunx_i1P6fMC&pg=PA54


Righteous victims: a history of the Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881-1999 – Page 124 – Benny Morris – [Random House, Inc] 1999 – 751 pages


… the Husseinis in March 1935 formed the Palestinian Arab Party, whose platform for resistance to the establishment of a Jewish National Home. It set up its own youth corps. al-Futuwwa (the name of an association of Arab knights during the Middle Ages). which resembled Germany’s Hitler Youth and was officially designated the “Nazi Scouts.” At Ihe founding meeting 011 February 11, 1936, Jamal al- Husseini, a principal aide of Hajj Amin, declared that Hitler had stalled out with only six followers and now had sixty million. The fisrt seventy al-Futuwwa recruits took the following oath: “Life — my right: independence — my aspiration: Arabism — my principle: Palestine — my country, and there is no room in it for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness.”
The Husseini-Nazi connection… through the 1930s and early 1940s.

http://books.google.com/books?id=jGtVsBne7PgC&pg=PA124


Armies of the young: child soldiers in war and terrorism By David M. Rosen, page 106

…The shrill calls to take up extremist politics invoked a symbolism that glorified youth, violence, and death. By 1936 Al Difaa, the paper of the Istiqlal movement and the most widely read paper in the Arab community, proclaimed, in clearly fascist tones, that “youth must go out to the field of battle as soldiers of the Fatherland.” Others argued that the “Land is in need of a youth, healthy in body and soul like Nazi youth in Germany and the fascist youth in Italy which stands ready for the orders of its leaders and ready to sacrifice its life for the honor of its people and freedom of its fatherland.”


…Nationalist rhetoric accompanied major efforts to build fascist-style youth organizations by recruiting young men to serve as the strike force of the nationalist movement. Throughout the 1930s the children of wealthy Palestinians returned home from European universities having witnessed the emergence of fascist paramilitary forces. Palestinian students educated in Germany returned to Palestine determined to found the Arab Nazi Party. The Husseinis used the Palestinian Arab Party to establish the al-Futuwwa youth corps, which was named after an association of Arab Nazi Scouts. By 1936 the Palestinian Arab Party was sponsoring the developments of storm troops patterned on the German model. These storm troops, all children and youth, were to be outfitted in black trousers and red shirts… The young recruits took the following oath: “Life — my right; independence — my aspiration; Arabism — my country, and there is no room in it for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness.”
[…]
The al-Futuwwa youth groups connected Palestinian youth to fascist youth movements elsewhere in the Middle East. While the Mufti was establishing youth groups in Palestine, al-Futuwwa groups were established in Iraq.
http://books.google.com/books?id=zQYQ0tho6mAC&pg=PA106


The PLO: the rise and fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Volume 1984, Part 2
Jillian Becker, [Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984] Pages 29, 293




[p. 29]

…movement in Palestine, the ‘Army of Salvation’ and a paramilitary youth organization, ostensibly a scout movement, called Futuwwah.
[p. 293]

Futuwwah (Mufti movement)

http://books.google.com/books?cd=1&id=H7BtAAAAMAAJ&dq=futuwwah

The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited, Benny Morris, Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 28



More important in ‘militarization’ of Arab Palestine was the establishment by the Hussenis of the Futuwa (youth companies), in which youngsters were trained in military drill and the use of weapons. The movement, modelled after the Nazi youth organizations…

http://books.google.com/books?id=uM_kFX6edX8C&pg=PA28


A durable peace: Israel and its place among the nations, Binyamin Netanyahu, 2000, p. 209


during this period in Damascus would appreciate the inclination of the Arab people to Nazism, for Nazism was the power …In Palestine the Mufti’s clan founded the Palestinian Arab Party, which party leader Jamal Husseini asserted was based on the Nazi model..

http://books.google.com/books?id=sj5DqVLshOUC&pg=PA209

History Upside Down: The Roots of Palestinian Fascism and the Myth of Israeli Aggression, by David Meir-Levi, 2010 [ISBN 1458766667, 9781458766663], p. 8


In the early 1930s, as many Arabs in British Mandatory Palestine looked toward an alliance with Hitler as leverage against Britain, al-Husseini … The youth organization established by the mufti used Nazi emblems, names, and uniforms. Germany reciprocated by setting up scholarships for Arab students, hiring Arab apprentices at German firms, and inviting Arab political leaders to the Nuremberg party rallies and Arab military leaders to Wehrmacht maneuvers.
http://books.google.com/books?id=nJSd7fZ-GhYC&pg=PA8

The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini By Chuck Morse – Page 28 – 2003 – 186 pages


Al- Husseini’s own Palestine Arab Party stood for the expulsion of all Jewish settlers and an independent Arab … efforts to assist in the development of what would become distinctly Nazi-Arab style organizations and political parties…

http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA28




Grand Mufti – Hajj Muhammad Amin al-Husseini

(Hajj Amin al-Husayni)




Highlights:



* Meeting with Hitler (November 1941).



* Main link between Nazis and the Arab world.



* Attempted the fusion of ‘Islamism & Nazism.’



* The ‘Fuhrer of the Arab world.’



* Pushing for Genocide, even intervened to reroute children heading to Palestine, which were sent to the gas chambers instead.



* Instigating anti-British violence in Palestine and anti-Jewish violence in: Palestine, Iraq.



* His mixed Anti-Semitic Quran speeches made his: most popular radio station in the Arab world.



* Set up the ‘Arab Legion.’



* Recruited SS Muslim-Nazi units.



* Nazi aid to his activities in Palestine – close Palestinian-Arab Nazi ties.



* His holy war, Jihad against: Great Britain, the United States, the Jews, and the West.



* Proclaimed Iraq’s declaration of war in May 1941, a jihad.



* An already de-facto pan-Arab, pan-Islamic leader & appointed by the Nazis the titular of Nazi pan-Arab leader. He aimes for an all out ‘pan-Arab empire’ under his leadership, leading to a future Caliphate.



* Urged the Nazis to bomb Tel Aviv & Jerusalem (but was turned down).



* Tighten ties with his Nazi allies even at the last months of the war, when these were already failing.



* Among his Arab “partners in crime”: Emil Ghouri, Wasef Kamal, Rasem Khalidi, Jamal Husseini and Rashid Ali al-Gailani.



* His immense influence even after the war, the ‘Arab Higher Committee.’ The ‘Arab League.’



* His radical Islamic hatred legacy till today & the foundation of the Middle East conflict.




Icon of Evil: Hitler’s Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam, David Dalin, John Rothmann, Alan Dershowitz

A chilling, fascinating, and nearly forgotten historical figure is resurrected in this riveting work that links the fascism of the last century with the terrorism of our own. Written with vigor and extraordinary access to primary sources in several languages, Icon of Evil is the definitive account of the man who, during World War II, was called “the fuhrer of the Arab world” and whose ugly legacy lives on today. With new and disturbing details, David G. Dalin and John F. Rothmann show how al -Husseini ingratiated himself with his hero, Adolf Hitler, becoming, with his blond hair and blue eyes, an “honorary Aryan” while dreaming of being installed as Nazi leader of the Middle East. Al-Husseini would later recruit more than 100,000 Muslims in Europe to fight in divisions of the Waffen-SS, and obstruct negotiations with the Allies that might have allowed four thousand Jewish children to escape to Palestine. Some believe that al-Husseini even inspired Hitler to implement the Final Solution. At wars end, al-Husseini escaped indictment at Nuremberg and was harbored in France. Icon of Evil chronicles al-Husseinis postwar relationships with such influential Islamic figures as the radical theoretician Sayyid Qutb and Saddam Husseins powerful uncle General Khairallah Talfah and his crucial mentoring of the young Yasser Ararat. Finally, it provides compelling evidence that al-Husseinis actions and writings serve as inspirations today to the leaders of Hamas, Hezbollah, and other terrorist organizations pledged to destroy Israel and the United States.
http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC


p. 131

During the 1920 and 1930s. Haj Amin al-Husseini was one of the first radical Islamic leaders to issue fatwas, or religious rulings, calling for jihad, or holy war, against Great Britain, the United States, the Jews, and the West. Since Workd War I, during which al-Husseini served as an officer in the Ottoman Turkish army, the fatwa was served as a major instrument by which Islamic religious leaders have impelled their followers to engage in acts of jihad, which invariably involved acts of violence and terrorism.
http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC&pg=PA131


Wolfgang G. Schwanitz on Nazism in Syria and Lebanon. The Ambivalence of the German Option, 1933-194 by Dr. Wolfgang G. Schwanitz [JCPA, December 2009]



Amin al-Husaini tried to synthesize Nazism and Islamism. …

http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&TMID=111&LNGID=1&FID=388&PID=0&IID=3235


“The Mufti of Berlin
Arab-Nazi collaboration is a taboo topic in the West”, Daniel Schwammenthal, Wall Street Jounal, September 24, 2009




…the Palestinian wartime leader “was one of the worst and fanatical fascists and anti-Semites,” …. He intervened with the Nazis to prevent the escape to Palestine of thousands of European Jews, who were sent instead to the death camps. He also conspired with the Nazis to bring the Holocaust to Palestine. The mufti “invented a new form of Jew-hatred by recasting it in an Islamic mold,” according to German scholar Matthias Küntzel. The mufti’s fusion of European anti-Semtism—particularly the genocidal variety—with Koranic views of Jewish wickedness has become the hallmark of Islamists world-wide, from al Qaeda to Hamas and Hezbollah. During his time in Berlin, the mufti ran the Nazis’ Arab-language propaganda radio program, which incited Muslims in the Mideast to “kill the Jews wherever you find them. This pleases God, history and religion.” Among the many listeners was also the man later known as Ayatollah Khomeini, who used to tune in to Radio Berlin every evening, according to Amir Taheri’s biography of the Iranian leader. Khomeini’s disciple Mahmoud Ahmadinejad still spews the same venom pioneered by the mufti as do Islamic hate preachers around the world.

Muslim Judeophobia is not—as is commonly claimed—a reaction to the Mideast conflict but one of its main “root causes.” It has been fueling Arab rejection of a Jewish state long before Israel’s creation.

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203440104574400532495168894.html


Global Issues: Selections From CQ Researcher – Page 158 – CQ Researcher – [Pine Forge Press] 2009
[ISBN 1412980372, 9781412980371] – 368 pages



The Mufti fled Palestine in 1938 to avoid arrest by the British for his part in the Arab revolt. He spent most of the war in Berlin, recruiting Bosnian Muslims for the SS, the semi-military Nazi organization that oversaw Hitler’s extermination of the Jews. From 1939 to 1945, the Mufti’s Arabic radio broadcasts, which mixed anti-Semitic propaganda with quotes from the Koran, made his station the most popular in the Arab world.
[…]
In 1943, as a propaganda stunt, SS leader Heinrich Himmler wanted to permit 5,000 Jewish children to emigrate to Palestine, in exchange for 20,000 German prisoners. The mufti fought against the plan, and the children were sent to the gas chambers. The Nazis funded the burgeoning growth of Muslim fundamentalism, helping the radical Muslim Brotherhood distribute Arabic translations of Mein Kampf, …

http://books.google.com/books?id=6HPB3DlB-m8C&pg=PA158


A history of the Middle East, Saul S. Friedman [McFarland] 2006 [ISBN 0786423560, 9780786423569] pp. 241-3



[p. 241]

In January 1941, the mufti assured the “great Fuhrer” of the “friendship and admiration” of the Arab people. As he put it, Arab people everywhere were prepared to act as is proper against the common enemy… Haj Amin was receptive to Hitler’s offer in March 1941 of a German volunteer legion that would be parachuted into Iraq. He proclaimed Iraq’s declaration of war in May 1941, a jihad. And when that revolt was snuffed, the mufti incited a pogrom in Baghdad that left 110 Jews dead.


[p. 242]

After the failure of the Gailani coup, the Mufti fled to Iran, where he encouraged Reza Khan to oppose the British and Russians. When the allies jointly occupied Persia in August 1941, he fled to Italy, claiming that he had no place else to go. On November 20, the mufti was granted a 90-minute audience with Adolf Hitler at the latter’s Wilhelmstrasse residence. He sought a blessing from the Nazi leader for the creation of a proposed Arab state. Hitler replied it was premature…


  For the duration of the war, the mufti was housed in two elegant villas and subsidized to the sum of 75000 marks per month for heading a special Buro des Grosmufti. Its threefold function: (a) espionage (training of saboteurs), (b) propaganda (public broadcasts on Muslim holy days), and (c) recruitment of 500000 troops for the Waffen SS. Although the numbers never reached such size, dozens of his recruits were charged as war criminals in Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia and Lithuania.
[..]

Haj Amin told one Nazi official: “The Jewish national home must disappear and the Jews get out. They are free to go to Hell.”
[…]

Whenever one of Hitler’s puppets contemplated negotiation with the Allies to rescue Jews, the Mufti presented a stumpling block…
Thus, when King Boris indicated a willingness release 4000 Jewish children for Palestine in May 1943, the mufti protested that the children “present a degree of danger…” Later that month, the mufti reacted against a proposal… that would have permitted 80,000 Jews to flee Romania..



[p. 243]


At a time when the Nazis were transporting Jews to killing centers in Poland, Haj Amin declared, “The Arab nation awaits the solution of the world Jewish problem by its friends, the Axis powers.” He knew what the Nazis mean by Endlosung.
As Dieter von Wisliceny, one of Adolf Eichmann’s aides, reported: “The grand mufti has repeatedly suggested to the Nazi authorities, including Hitler, Ribbentrop, and Himmler the extermination of European Jewry… Even as the military situation deteriorated for Germany in the last 18 months of the war, the mufti found himself drawn closer to his Nazi associates… photographs with Himmler… pledged cooperation And he made it very clear that when the time was appropriate, he would call upon the “best saviour of the Arabs”—Adolph Eichmann—to apply his expertise in shuttling Jews to death camps. Eichmann had met the mufti in the Middle East in 1937 and later testified that he had instructed to open all field on Jewish Question to the affable Arabs….

http://books.google.com/books?id=LCNpmgDOYTwC&pg=PA241

A safe haven: Harry S. Truman and the founding of Israel – Page 213 – Allis Radosh, Ronald Radosh – [HarperCollins] 2009 [ISBN 0060594632, 9780060594633] – 428 pages


[p. 212]

When Kirchway learned that the U.S. delegation to the United Nations backed the British on giving a platform to the Arab Higher Committee, she immediately went into action. First, Kirchwey and the Nation Associates gave out a lengthy report on the pro- Axis activities of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem to all fifty-five delegations to the United Nations. Most striking was the fact that it was based on classified U.S. government files… The Arab Higher Committee, the report charged, was the “creature of the Arab League” and was run from Egypt by the Mufti, Haj Amin al-Husseini. The committee’s members were not elected representatives but “nothing more . . . than a deal among leaders of the various Arab factions in Palestine—and the will of the grand Mufti.” Three members of the Palestine Arab Higher Committee who were delegates to the U.N. General Assemply, were called, in the Nation Associates report, men who ranked with the “worst of the Axis war criminals.”

… The accounts of the Mufti, Kirchway explained, was documented from captured files belonging to the mufti and the German High Command, all found by American military authorities in Germany.

Along with the report were documents and photos that substantiated the charge that the Mufti controlled and directed the Arab Higher Committee. Photos used showed the Mufti and the other Arab leaders with Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Dino Alfieri…

[p. 213]
Emil Ghouri, the head of the Arab delegation to UNSCOP, and delegates Wasef Kamal and Rasem Khalidi as “notorious for … association with the Mufti and his Axis activities.”

Mufti’s Jamal Husseini… had joined the Mufti in Iraq in 1939… organized a pro-Axis fifth column that led to the anti-British rebellion.

[…] In the Hague, Arab students were trained in explosives and parachuted into Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Captured records also revealed that the Mufti had accompanied Adolf Eichmann to visit the gas chambers at Auschwitz. Moreover, the Mufti had put an end to negotiations being carried out to ransom Jews in Bratislava, insisting that they all be liquidated. A letter the Mufti had written to Heinrich Heinrich Himmler revealed the Mufti complaining that Joachim Ribbentrop and Himmler had been too lenient, since the had let some Jews leave Germany. “If such practices continue,” the Mufti was quoted as saying, “it would be incomprehensible to Arabs and Moslems

http://books.google.com/books?id=B3SmdKOSPQEC&pg=PA213


The record of collaboration of King Farouk of Egypt with the Nazis and their ally, the Mufti: the official Nazi records of the King’s alliance and of the Mufti’s plans for bombing Jerusalem and Tel Aviv ; memorandum submitted to the United Nations, June 1948 [Nation Associates (New York, N.Y.), United Nations, The Nation Associates, 1948]


PLANS FOR BOMBING JERUSALEM AND TEL AVIV MEMORANDUM SUBMITTED TO THE UNITED NATIONS JUNE 1948

Mufti Urged Nazis to Bomb Jerusalem and Tel Aviv While the …
revealed in a number of secret documents found by the Allies Armies in Germany…
Thus, according to one of these documents, a secret report of the German Air Force Command, dated October 29, 1943, revealed that the Mufti for the past six months had been proposing an attack… “…any attack must be carried out with a very large force in order to have a lasting effect.” But Fieldmarshal Goering was obliged to turn down…
Apparently the Mufti did not rest…

http://books.google.com/books?&id=tdhmAAAAMAAJ&dq=TEL+AVIV

http://books.google.com/books?&id=tdhmAAAAMAAJ&dq=Goering

Icon of evil: Hitler’s mufti and the rise of radical Islam – David G. Dalin, John F. Rothmann, 2008, p. 170

http://books.google.com/books?id=_-IbsuxSQxcC&pg=PA170

A Diary of Four Years of Terrorism and Anti-Semitism [iUniverse
ISBN 0595793002, 9780595793006] – Page 209



One of Mr. Arafat’s personal heroes, the Grand Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini, visited Auschwitz and reproached the Germans for not being more determined in exterminating the Jews. In 1985, Mr. Arafat paid the mufti homage, saying he was ‘proud to no end’ to be walking in his footsteps.
http://books.google.com/books?id=HSpmk7x0rbMC&pg=PA209


A history of the Holocaust – Saul S. Friedman – [Vallentine Mitchell] 2004 – 494 pages – Page 339


He considered this a comfortable solution to the Palestine problem. The Mufti was especially fond of Himmler, calling him ‘an understanding, great and energetic man’.50 In July 1944, when 400000 Hungarian Jews were being transported to Auschwitz, Haj Amin complained to Himmler that the Nazis were too lenient with the Jews. He asked that the German government make no more

http://books.google.com/books?id=4fwhAQAAIAAJ&q=mufti+himmler

Free Europe: Volume 6 – Free Europe, 1942 [Original from Indiana University] – Page 41



The Grand Mufti… He has met Hitler. Berlin nurses and spends lavishly on every kind of minority movement which can spread confusion and …the days of the Grand Mufti are not yet ended. he is cast for a leading role in the Nazi plans for the Middle East…. This is where the co-operation of Rashid Ali, ex-King Amanullah and the Mufti of Jerusalem is of vital importance …

http://books.google.com/books?id=pEHTAAAAMAAJ&q=met+hitler


Grand Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini [Palestine Facts]

I heard him say, accompanied by Eichmann, he had visited incognito the gas chamber of Auschwitz…

http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_mandate_grand_mufti.php

Antisemitism, a history portrayed, by Janrense Boonstra, Hans Jansen, Joke Kriesmeyer, Anne Frank Stichting [Anne Frank Foundation] 1989
[ISBN 9012062020, 9789012062022] p. 101



The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem In 1914, the periodical Falastin – with its extremist Arab nationalist slant – was abolished by the Ottoman authorities because of its racist hate propaganda.
http://books.google.com/books?id=mMEsAQAAIAAJ&q=1914


LIFE – Nov 8, 1937 – Page 104 – Vol. 3, No. 19 – 136 pages – Magazine – Full view


Chief Arab troublemaker (above, left) was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el Husseini, who played a two faced game with the British.

http://books.google.com/books?id=kD8EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA104


Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11 – Page 11 – Matthias Küntzel – 2007 – 180 pages


and weapons to assist the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin el- Husseini and the “Arab revolt” of 1936-1939 in Palestine …

http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PR11


Nazis ‘shipped arms to Palestinians’ – Israel News, Ynetnews May 7, 2006

Nazis ‘shipped arms to Palestinian
British National Archives unveil presence of Nazi S.S. agents in Mandatory Palestine, working closely with Palestinian leaders… The records also show that the news of increased Nazi-Arab cooperation panicked the British government, and caused it to cancel a plan in 1938 to bring to Palestine 20,000 German Jewish refugees, half of them children, facing danger from the Nazis.
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3248081,00.html

The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini, Chuck Morse
iUniverse, 2003 – History – 186 pages



This is the remarkable story of Haj Amin al-Husseini, who was in many ways as big a Nazi villain as Hitler himself, and to understand his influence on the Middle East is to understand the ongoing genocidal program against the Jews of Israel. Al-Husseini was a bridge figure in terms of transporting the Nazi genocide in Europe into the post-war Middle East.

As the leader of Arab Palestine during the British Mandate period, al-Husseini introduced violence against moderate Arabs as well as against Jews. Al-Husseini met with Adolf Eichmann in Palestine in 1937 and subsequently went on the Nazi payroll as a Nazi agent.


Al-Husseini played a pivotal behind-the-scenes role in instigating a pro-Nazi coup in Iraq in 1941, in urging Nazi’s and pro-Nazi governments in Europe to transport Jews to death camps, in training pro-Nazi Bosnian brigades, and in funneling Nazi loot into post-war Arab countries.

http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C



The case for Israel – Alan M. Dershowitz – [John Wiley and Sons] 2003 – Biography & Autobiography – 264 pages


In August 1929, leaflets prepared by the mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini instructed Muslims to attack the Jews
http://books.google.com/books?id=Dunx_i1P6fMC&pg=PA42


Al-Husseini also helped incite the series of pogroms which lasted from 1936 to 1939, in which hundreds more Jews were killed 
http://tech.mit.edu/V123/N12/kraus12.12c.html



The Mufti of Jerusalem: Al-Hajj Amin al-Husayni and the Palestinian National Movement, Philip Mattar, Columbia University Press, 1992, p. 95


They were to go to Iraq, disguise themselves as Arabs, kidnap or kill the Mufti, and destroy oil installations. … Amir ‘Abdullah’s Arab Legion, and the Transjordanian Frontier Force (Arab troops recruited by the Palestine government ). In a desperate attempt, the Mufti issued a fatwa urging Arabs and Muslims to help Iraq free herself from British imperialism. The fatwa was the most anti- British statement he had ever made,

http://books.google.com/books?id=XH8qTS5xNUIC&pg=PA95


The Mufti’s Conversation with Hitler [JVL]

The Arab Legion would he quite easy to raise. An appeal by the Mufti to the Arab countries and the prisoners of Arab, Algerian, Tunisian, and Moroccan …

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/mufti2.html


A durable peace: Israel and its place among the nations – Page 20 – Binyamin Netanyahu – 2000 – 482 pages




Mufti… Husseini expressed his willingness to cooperate with Germany in every way, including the recruitment of an Arab Legion to fight for the Nazis. Hitler told the Mufti that the two of them shared the common goal of the destruction of Palestinian Jewry…

http://books.google.com/books?id=sj5DqVLshOUC&pg=PA209



Once the mufti relocated permanently to Berlin, where he established his own Reich-supported “bureau,” he was given airtime on Radio Berlin. From [[Berlin]] and other fascist capitals in Europe, the mufti continued to agitate for the destruction of international Jewry, as well as a pan-Arab and pan-Islamic alliance with the Nazi regime, he explained to the German ambassador, Ettel, his plan to bring all Arabs under the banner of Pan-Arabism over to the side of the Axis. (25 June 1942). Here he came out unconditionally for the “final solution” of the Jewish question,” calling on the Germans to wipe out all Jews, “not even sparing the children.” http://books.google.com/books?id=nvD2rZSVau4C&pg=PA497


Al-Husseini was welcomed into Baghdad with cheering crowds and he was hailed as a pan-Arab hero and as a defender of the faith with the same zeal that Hitler was being hailed at Nazi rallies. Upon his arrival, he immediately launched into political intrigue by organizing and effectively gaining control of the secretive pan-Arab and pro-Nazi Iraqi Arab National Party. The agenda of this party was to link up with likeminded groups in Syria, Transjordan, and cis-Jordan (Palestine) for the purpose of throwing out the colonial powers and forming an independent and United Ummah.
http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA49


After instigating a pogrom against Jews in Palestine in 1920, the first such pogrom against Jews in the Arab world in hundreds of years, he went on to inspire the development of pro-Nazi parties throughout the Arab world including Young Egypt, led by [[Gamal Abdul Nasser]], and the Social Nationalist Party of Syria led by Anton Sa’ada.
http://archive.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2003/2/20/145726.shtml


Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11 – Page 31 – Matthias Küntzel – [Telos Press Publishing] 2007 – 180 pages [ISBN 0914386360, 9780914386360] – Preview

“The Mufti himself,” wrote Klaus Gensicke in his seminal study, “acknowledged that at that time it was only due to the German funds he received that it had been possible to carry through the uprising in Palestine…” In addition, German weapons were sent through secret channels… In 1920, soon after his return to the mandate territory, he incited anti-Jewish riots in Jerusalem…
http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PA31




Arab contemporaries: the role of personalities in politics
Majid Khadduri – [Johns Hopkins University Press] 1973 – 255 pages – Page 78




Even before he set foot in Axis lands, the Mufti was determined to play the leading role as spokesman for the Arab people. Both as a religious and Pan-Arab leader, he was very widely known in Arab and Islamic lands and had carried on …

http://books.google.com/books?&id=xIkLAAAAIAAJ&dq=set+foot


The Gramsci Factor: 59 Socialists in Congress – Page 113 – Chuck Morse – 2002 – 172 pages


The British backed a successful countercoup and the Mufti proceeded on to Berlin where he was appointed by the Nazi’s as titular head of a Nazi-pan Arab government in exile.
http://books.google.com/books?id=OvV69F3yLukC&pg=PA113


Yad Vashem studies, Issue 35, Part 1 By Yad ṿa-shem, rashut ha-zikaron la-Shoʼah ṿela-gevurah, p. 136


..the Mufti stressed that, “Arab interests are completely identical in thrust with those of the Germans.” […] the Grand Mufti in exile in Germany was not satisfied with mere rhetoric and antisemitic tirades. Rather, he continued to pursue the vision of the destruction of the Jews and the simultaneous creation of a pan-Arab empire under his leadership. This was to culminate in a new Caliphate, yet to be established.

http://books.google.com/books?id=JcDXaeukt4sC&pg=PA136


Hajj Amin al-Husayni: The Mufti of Jerusalem [United States Holocaust Memorial Museum]

Hajj Amin al-Husayni: The Mufti of Jerusalem Apr 1, 2010 … 1974) was the Mufti (chief Muslim Islamic legal religious authority) of … in Palestine; 3) promotion of himself as a pan-Arab and Muslim religious leader. … Hajj Amin al-Husayni: Arab Nationalist and Muslim Leader …
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007665


Future Jihad: Terrorist Strategies Against the West – Page 80 – Walid Phares – 2006 – 310 pages [isbn=1403975116]


“Jihadists and World War II”… While Nazi infidels were ultimately anathema to jihadists, the alliance answered all their practical needs at the moment.
http://books.google.com/books?id=VlUJdPp76dMC&pg=PA80
[p. 81]
“the Third Reich’s leading Muslim ally”
http://books.google.com/books?id=VlUJdPp76dMC&pg=PA81


Jihad and international security – Page 31 – Jalīl Rawshandil, Sharon Chadha – [Publisher Macmillan] 2006 – 235 pages – [ISBN 1403971927]


Jihad against Israel
Perhaps the longest-running jihad in today’s world is the struggle to reclaim Israel for the Muslims. During World War II, the highest ranking Islamic cleric of Jerusalem, the Grand Mufti… Hajj Amin el-Husseini.. …He also helped recruit Bosnian Muslims for the German SS116 and worked to prevent further immigration to Palestine thus ensuring that many Jews would end up in death camps instead. In 1948, a month before the Arab states declared …
http://books.google.com/books?id=J3jbvGFl39MC&pg=PA31


1948: a history of the first Arab-Israeli war – Benny Morris – 2008 – pAGE 21 – 524 pages


The exiled al-Husseini himself helped raise a brief anti-British revolt in Baghdad in spring 1941 and then fled to Berlin, where he served the Nazi regime for four years by broadcasting anti-British, jihadist propaganda to the Middle East and recruiting Bosnian Muslims for the Wehrmacht.
http://books.google.com/books?id=CC7381HrLqcC&pg=RA21


Icon of Evil: Hitler’s Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam – Page 51 – David Dalin, John Rothmann, Alan Dershowitz – 2009 – 227 pages

On this visit to Auschwitz, al-Husseini reportedly urged the guards in charge of the chambers to be more diligent and efficient in their efforts…
http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC&pg=PA51


The legacy of Islamic antisemitism: from sacred texts to solemn history – Andrew G. Bostom – [Prometheus Books] 2008 – 766 pages – Page 94]


From this sanctuary, he provided active support for the Germans by recruiting Bosnian Muslims, in addition to Muslim minorities from the Caucasus, for dedicated Nazi SS units. The mufti’s objectives for these recruits — and Muslims …
http://books.google.com/books?&id=yIkQAQAAIAAJ&dq=sanctuary


The Gramsci Factor: 59 Socialists in Congress – Page 72 – Chuck Morse – 2002 – 172 pages

Adolf Eichmann actually visited Palestine and met Husseini at that time and subsequently maintained regular … Husseini recruited Bosnian Muslims in Nazi occupied Yugoslavia in his efforts to ethnically cleanse their country of Jews. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=OvV69F3yLukC&pg=PA72


Palestine, 1948: war, escape and the emergence of the Palestinian refugee problem
– Page 43 – Yoav Gelber – [Sussex Academic Press] 2006 – 436 pages



… who had refused to return to communist Poland; Bosnians who had served in the Nazi Muslim legion; Croat Ustasha and Serb Chetniks who had fled from Yugoslavia to Italy; and British defectors from the army and the Palestine police. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=UcSUgrDsD_sC&pg=PA43


Institute for Global Jewish Affairs – Global Antisemitism, Anti-Israelism, Jewish Studies  


The Mufti of Jerusalem


Haj-Amin el-Husseini and National-Socialism, by Jennie Lebel, translated by Paul Münch from Serbian, Belgrade: Čigoja štampa, 2007, 374 pp.
Reviewed by Wolfgang G. Schwanitz


Amin al-Husaini mixed the old traditional and the new racial hatred of Jews into a new ideology which served the totalitarian cause quite willingly.
For his part, the mufti said in 1961 that the Nazis needed no persuasion in their racism against Jews. But Hitler and the mufti influenced each other for the worse.
http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&FID=624&PID=0&IID=2967



Genocide, critical issues of the Holocaust: a companion to the film, Genocide – Page 132 [ISBN 0940646048, 9780940646049] – Alex Grobman, Daniel Landes, Sybil Milton – [Behrman House, Inc] 1983 – 501 pages

Only the turning tide on the North African front rescued Tunisian Jews from annihilation. … From the mufti of Jerusalem to Anwar Sadat (then merely a junior cadet in Egypt), Muslims in the East regarded Germany with approval. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=8ppCqANI50UC&pg=PA132


The Holocaust conspiracy: an international policy of genocide – Page 235 – William R. Perl – [SP Books] 1989 [ISBN 0944007244, 9780944007242] – 261 pages

With Saudi Arabia in the forefront, the Arabs have repeatedly called for the destruction of the Jewish state. They have proclaimed the Jihad, Holy war, against Israel, the war which according to the Koran must end with the enemy’s total annihilation. In this endeavor the Arabs are making use of the methods applied by the Germans during the Holocaust as well as by directions resulting from their employment of former SS officials.
[…]
As we have stated before in this chapter, history must be viewed as a continuum. Such an unfortunate continuum regarding the Holocaust exist in the continuing Nazi-Arab connection. The influence of these two groups upon each other is mutual. Too little attention is being paid to the way in which Arabs contributed to the effectiveness of the Final Solution program. Haj Amin el Husseini, head of the Supreme Muslim Council and Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, a venomous Jew-hater, had prior to the war organized Arab terrorism against the Jews in Palestine. From 1941 on, he spent much of his time shuttling between Berlin and Rome. He met in Berlin with Ernst von Weizsaecker, State Secretary in the German Foreign Office, with Himmler, and on November 28, 1941 with Hitler. In his meeting, the Mufti tried to strengthen the Fuehrer’s decision to ” exterminate” all Jews, and both agreed that the Germans would fight the Jews mercilessly, in all of Europe “and beyond.”[…]
The Mufti had also met with Eichmann and visited Auschwitz. In Rome, he was received by the Italian Foreign Minister, Count Ciano, and by Mussolini himself. In his meetings with the German officials, the Mufti stressed the need to wipe out as many Jews as possible and to finally revoke the designation of Palestine as a Jewish National Home. He proposed that after the German victory,an Arab state –under his leadership– be created that would consist of Syria, Iraq, Transjordan and the Wesrern, Jewish part of Palestine. In return the Mufti promised Arab revolts against the British who were then predominant in these areas. One such serious revolt aganst the British occured in April 1941.
http://books.google.com/books?id=SlSDYmjJNU0C&pg=PA235


LIFE – Oct 27, 1952 – Page 145 – Vol. 33, No. 17 – 156 pages – Magazine – Full viewMYSTERY MAN OF ISLAM SPEAKS In exclusive talk, mufti defends tie to Hitler and record on Jews by JAMES BELL The name of Haj Amin el Husseini, usually called the Mufti of Jerusalem, has been associated with assassination, riot, …
During the Palestine war the Muft’s holy fighters terrorized Jews, blew up houses and killed many people…
http://books.google.com/books?id=2lIEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA145





[Rachid] Rashid Ali al-Gailani
[Rashid Ali el Kailani]
[Rashid ‘Ali al-Keilani]
[Sayyad Rashid el Keilani]



Highlights:



* Led pro-Nazi, fascist coup in Baghdad, 1941.



* Met with Hitler in 1942.



* Close ties with the Mufti.




Nazi propaganda for the Arab world – Page 60 – Jeffrey Herf – [Yale University Press] 2009
[ISBN 0300145799, 9780300145793] – 335 pages – Preview

… 1941, Rashid Ali Kilani led a pro-Axis coup that overthrew the Iraqi government of General Taha el-Hashimi. Haj Amin el-Husseini was deeply involved. The coup plotters included Yunis …
http://books.google.com/books?id=YzQNSTvHv-sC&pg=PA60


The Iraq coup of Raschid Ali in 1941, the Mufti Husseini and the Farhud… The Coup – On April 1, 1941  the “Golden Square” and the chief of staff of the Iraqi army staged the coup, and appointed Rashid ‘Ali al-Keilani head of the government. Nuri as Said was forced to flee Iraq along with the regent and young king Faysal II. On April 3, a letter from the German Secretary of State Von Weizacker answered Haddad’s letter favorably, but the letter arrived after the coup.


Rashid ‘Ali  stated on April 10 that he would honor the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930, apparently fearing British reprisals .On April 16, Rashid responded to a  request for landing of  British troops at Basra cautiously. He replied that they could land, but must embark immediately for Palestine or Egypt. The British began landing troops on April 16 or 18  at Basra, at first in compliance with Rashid Ali’s conditions, and later in violation of the conditions, since the troops did not leave.  The British played for time and made pretences of accepting the new situation. However, reinforcements from India kept arriving at Basra.


The Iraqi government was also trying to buy time, and entered into a pretence of Turkish mediation of the crisis. However, the Iraqi representative in Turkey, told the German Ambassador von Papen, that there would be no compromise with the  British. Raschid Ali had already asked the Italians for military aid at the end of March, and likewise, Hitler decided on April 10 to send military aid to the Iraqis. However, the shipments took several weeks. The German foreign office got a report from General Keitel of a large shipment, including, for example, some 15,000 rifles and about 800 machine guns.    Arms were shipped from Saloniki and through Turkey and Syria. The shipments from Syria were sent as a consequence of the agreement between the Vichy leader Darlan and Hitler as to general collaboration between Vichy and Germany. In the same agreement Vichy also agreed to allow German aircraft to base and stage through Syria on their way to Iraq, though there would be some pretence involved, so that the Vichy government could plausibly deny to Britain that it was assisting the German war effort. The French also rationed German fuel supplies, and as the Luftwaffe was unable to obtain fuel from Persia or elsewhere, this hampered their effectiveness.


A second group of British troops landed at Basra on April 28, and the Iraqis protested.  On the evening of April 29, about 9,000 troops of  the Iraqi army surrounded the RAF air base at Habaniyeh and the next day the Iraqis ordered that no flights were to take off. However, the Iraqis had insufficient force. The move was instigated by the “Golden Square” officers. Rashid Ali himself apparently wanted to avoid antagonizing the British and wait for supplies from the Germans.


The British strike back – The British struck to lift the siege of Habanniyeh, remove Rashid Ali from power and restore the pro-British government. Though they were initially unable to move from Basra overland, because of the weather and because Iraqis had cut lines of communication, the British were able to use the RAF at Habbaniyeh and Shaiba effectively, and began attacking on May 2.   They had about 90 aircraft, mostly antiquated, but these included a number of Wellington bombers[8]. . The RAF struck the Iraqis surrounding Habbaniyeh  The Iraqis used their air force [9],  very sparingly and not very effectively.  At the same time, relatively small numbers of British reinforcements were ferried by air from Basra.  Iraqi anti-aircraft fire and artillery proved ineffective. By May 6 the Iraqi force was defeated and the siege of Habbaniyeh was abandoned, though the roads were still blocked.  The RAF also destroyed most of the Iraqi air force on the ground by about May 8.


German Aid  – During this time, several German officers and diplomats were seconded to Iraq to oversee Luftwaffe  operations and the arms supply. Dr Fritz Grobba, the former consul, now returned to oversee the arms shipments and a Major Hansen was sent to oversee the transfer of aircraft. Grobba allegedly distributed sums of money to both Rashid Ali and the Mufti. Raschid Ali got about 90,000 pounds, and the Mufti reportedly got about $10,000.
http://www.mideastweb.org/iraqaxiscoup.htm


Reference Guide to the Nazis and Arabs During the Holocaust: A Concise Guide to the Relationship and Conspiracy of the Nazis and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in North Africa and the Middle East During the Era of the Holocaust – Pages 32-3 – Shelomo Alfassa – [Lulu.com] 2006 [ISBN 0976322633, 9780976322634] – 70 pages


Working with an old ally, Rashid Ali al-Gaylani, who became prime minister of Iraq in March 1940, the Mufti “obtained promises of Axis support, and in April 1941 carried out an anti-British and pro-Nazi coup” in Baghdad.
http://books.google.com/books?id=T2g2XA53UOEC&pg=PA32
[p. 33]
From Syria they extended their activities to Iraq, where they helped to establish a pro-Nazi regime headed by Rashid Ali al-Gailani. This was overthrown by the British, and Rashid Ali went to join his friend the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem 
http://books.google.com/books?id=T2g2XA53UOEC&pg=PA33


The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini – Page 50 – Chuck Morse – 2003 – 186 pages

In June of 1941, the Nazis would launch Operation Barbarossa which involved a full frontal assault on their erstwhile ally the … On April 1, 1941, the well planned pro-Nazi coup d’etat was launched and it brought General Rashid Ali …
http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA50





Ummar


Prevent World War III., Issues 53-57
Author Society for the Prevention of World War III (New York, N.Y.)
Publisher Society for Prevention of World War III, 1959

Page 40
Mr. Ummar was also a member of the Rashid Ali conspiracy. As early as 1936 he went to Germany and studied at the Nazi dominated universities in Berlin and Jena. Ummar too had to flee after the failure of the 1941 revolt and he wound up in Nazi Germany. As an avid admirer of Hitler’s “New Order” and
http://books.google.com/books?id=ckHTAAAAMAAJ&q=pro+nazi


British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the foreign office confidential print. From 1940 through 1945. Near and the Middle-East. Eastern Affairs, january 1942-june 1942 – Malcolm Yapp, Paul Preston, Michael Patridge – 1997 – 357 pages – p. 308

Rashid Ali, however, flouted constitutional precedent by refusing to resign and coerced the Regent into signing decrees … In forming his Cabinet General Taha retained two members of Rashid Ali’s team, Umar Nadhmi, who took over the …
http://books.google.com/books?&id=4jWQAAAAMAAJ&dq=Umar+Nadhmi


Records of Iraq, 1914-1966: 1941-1945: Volume 9 – Alan de Lacy Rush, Jane Priestland – 2001 – 857 pages [Page 398]

Rashid Ali, however, flouted constitutional precedent by refusing to resign and coerced the Regent into signing … Tahu retained two members of Rashid Ali’s team, Umar Nadhmi, who took over the Ministries of Interior and Justice, 
http://books.google.com/books?id=sWZtAAAAMAAJ&q=Umar+Nadhmi+rashid+ali





Khairallah [Khayrallah] Tuflah (Iraq)
[Tolfah]

[Taflah]


Highlights:



* Devout Sunni Muslim.



* An army officer who Participant in the 1941 Rashid Ali al-Gailani pro-Nazi coup / Mufti‘s associate.



* Professed an ardent admiration for Hitler.



* Hatred for the British, racist views of Persians, Jews [author of infamous pamphlet “Three whom God should have created…”



* Mentor to Iraq’s dictator Saddam Hussein, who admired him, adopted his bigoted teaching, he republished his uncle’s material & “practiced” it.

A time of our choosing: America’s war in Iraq – Page 25 – Todd S. Purdum – 2003 – 319 pages


Tulfah, an army officer, had supported a coup against the British- backed Iraqi monarchy in 1941 and spent five years in prison. He taught Saddam to distrust foreigners and filled him with admiration for the emerging pan-Arab nationalism of Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt.

http://books.google.com/books?id=YFZSWh8pUWUC&pg=PA25


Middle Eastern leaders and Islam: a precarious equilibrium – Page 92 – Sonia Alianak – 2007 – 241 pages



Accordingly, Khayrallah, an army officer, took part in the abortive uprising led by Rashid Ali al-Gailani against the British-controlled monarchy in 1941. Saddam would later say of his uncle’s influence, “My maternal uncle was a nationalist” and “He always inspired us with a great nationalistic feeling” (Matar, 1981, p. 22).

http://books.google.com/books?id=IiV_q4CYXA0C&pg=PA92


Icon of Evil: Hitler’s Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam – Page 88 – David Dalin, John Rothmann, Alan Dershowitz – 2009 – 227 pages



Khairallah Talfah was an Iraqi army officer and passionate Arab nationalist who had been one of al-Husseini’s most trusted lieutenants in their short-lived pro -Nazi coup that had briefly returned Rashid Ali …

http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC&pg=PA88


Secrets of the Holy Lance: The Spear of Destiny in History & Legend – Page 317 – Jerry E. Smith, George Piccard – 2005 – 341 pages



During the failed Iraqi coup of 1941, the task of assassinating the Iraqi leader , Karim Qassim, was given to one Khairallah Tulfah – – the uncle and guardian of Saddam Hussein…

http://books.google.com/books?id=qGX3ZtD_UikC&pg=PA317

Iraq President Suddam Hussein Handbook – Page 7 – IBP USA, USA International Business Publications – 2003 – 380 pages



At around ten, Saddam fled the family and returned to live in Baghdad with his uncle, Kharaillah Tulfah. Tulfah, the father of Saddam’s future wife, was a devout Sunni Muslim and a veteran from the 1941 Anglo-Iraqi War between Iraqi …

http://books.google.com/books?id=OXsij4BGMmcC&pg=PA7


The complete idiot’s guide to understanding Iraq – Page 149 – Joseph Tragert – 2003 – 318 pages



It was (and is) not uncommon for an elder in an Iraqi tribal group to take in a young child in need of direction. …Saddam’s uncle gave Saddam an early education in ethnic prejudice; Uncle Tulfah wrote a pamphlet titled: “Three Whom God Should Not Have Created: Persians, Jews, and Flies.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=KonR1QVERaEC&pg=PA149

The Journal of psychohistory, Volume 34, Atcom, 2006, p. 122



He was then given away by her to be raised by a terrorist Uncle. His mother remarried. His earliest influence was with his Uncle Khagrallah Tulfah, an army officer stripped of rank by the British after he joined a failed 1941 coup…

http://books.google.com/books?id=Et8nAAAAYAAJ&q=tulfah
..the older man became his guide through the political maelstrom of postwar Iraq… Tulfah had definite theories about Iraqi society. He made them part of the boy’s political education. Later, Tulfah expounded on them in a pamphlet, “Three Whom God Should Not Have Created: Persians, Jews and Flies.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=Et8nAAAAYAAJ&q=flies


Gandhi & Churchill: the epic rivalry that destroyed an empire and rivalry that destroyed an empire and forged our age – Page 473 – Arthur Herman – 2008 – 721 pages



The British took Baghdad right afterward, and on June 1, 1941, Rashid Ali fled first to Iran, then to Germany. His associate Yunis el-Sabawi, who had translated Mein Kampf into Arabic, was captured and hanged. Another young officer who fought for Rashid Ali was Khairallah Talfah. He escaped but would pass the lessons of the Iraq war. and of the Nazi cause, on to his four-year-old nephew, Saddam Hussein.

http://books.google.com/books?id=tquxD6dk914C&pg=PA473


Saddam Hussein: a political biography – Page 15 – Efraim Karsh, Inari Rautsi – 2003



In a slim treatise entitled Three Whom God Should Not Have Created: Persians, Jews, and Flies, Khairallah defined Persians as “animals God created in the shape of humans.” Jews, in his view … To judge from saddam’s diatribes against Israel and Iran throughout his career, Khairallah’s ideas about Persians and Jews had fallen on fertile soil.

http://books.google.com/books?id=pJcu5L72coUC&pg=PA15


My father’s paradise: a son’s search for his Jewish past in Kurdish Iraq – Page 300 – Ariel Sabar – 2008 – 332 pages

As president, he republished a pamphlet written by his uncle and surrogate father titled “Three Whom God Should Not Have Created: Persians, Jews, and Flies .”

http://books.google.com/books?id=BE89OJmsM4AC&pg=PA300


He dreamed of glory but dealt out only despair, David Blair charts the career of Saddam Hussein, from back-street assassin to Iraq’s vicious dictator, Mar 2003 – Telegraph


The only sympathetic figure in his boyhood was an uncle, Khairallah Tulfah. He rescued Saddam from al-Ouja and took him to Baghdad when he was 10, ensuring the illiterate boy went to school. Saddam would later marry Khairallah’s daughter.



Exactly how his kindly uncle influenced him can be judged by Khairallah’s political views. He nursed a passionate hatred of Britain, then Iraq’s colonial overlord, and a fervent admiration of Hitler.



Khairallah spent six years in jail after joining a pro-Nazi uprising in Baghdad, which the British Army crushed in 1941. He later wrote a pamphlet entitled Three whom God should not have created – Persians, Jews and Flies. In this work, Khairallah described Jews as a “mixture of dirt and the leftovers of diverse people”.



From Khairallah, Saddam imbibed this toxic mixture of nationalism and xenophobia. From his violent rural upbringing, he learned to distrust anyone, absolutely anyone, beyond his immediate family. Saddam the paranoid tyrant can be traced back to Saddam the persecuted village boy.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/1424980/He-dreamed-of-glory-but-dealt-out-only-despair.html?pageNum=1


Saddam Hussein: the politics of revenge, Saïd K. Aburish, Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2000 [ISBN 1582340501, 9781582340500], p. 123



…the government offered ‘pure Iraqis’ married to anyone with Iranian blood $2500 reward for divorcing them.

http://books.google.com/books?id=7yAHjRJ3LkIC&pg=PA123





Yunis al-Sabawi
[Yunis el-Sabawi]
[Yunus Al-Sabawi]



Highlights:



* Pro Nazi, translated Mein Kampf into Arabic, and published in the Iraqi paper.


* Active in the pan-Arab ‘al-Muthanna Club.’ Headed the [Arabic] ‘Hitler Youth‘ type futuwwa (together with S. Shawkat).



* Among the leaders of the (1941) Farhud pogrom – massacre.




Gandhi & Churchill: the epic rivalry that destroyed an empire and rivalry that destroyed an empire and forged our age – Page 473 – Arthur Herman – 2008 – 721 pages



The British took Baghdad right afterward, and on June 1, 1941, Rashid Ali fled first to Iran, then to Germany. His associate Yunis el-Sabawi, who had translated Mein Kampf into Arabic, was captured and hanged…

http://books.google.com/books?id=tquxD6dk914C&pg=PA473


Holocaust Encyclopedia, The Farhud [United States Holocaust Museum]


The rise of this pro-German government threatened the Jews in Iraq. Nazi influence and antisemitism already were widespread in Iraq, due in large part to the German legation’s presence in Baghdad as well as influential Nazi propaganda, which took the form of Arabic-language radio broadcasts from Berlin. Mein Kampf had been translated into Arabic by Yunis al-Sab’awi, and was published in a local newspaper, Al Alam al Arabi (The Arab World), in Baghdad during 1933-1934. Yunis al-Sab’awi also headed the Futtuwa, a pre-military youth movement influenced by the Hitlerjugend (Hitler Youth) in Germany. After the coup d’etat, al-Sab’awi became a minister in the new Iraqi government.

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007277


Wolfgang G. Schwanitz on Nazism in Syria and Lebanon. The Ambivalence of the German Option, 1933-194 by Dr. Wolfgang G. Schwanitz [JCPA, December 2009]



Indeed, it was the second translation of this book into Arabic. Yunus as-Sabawi of Bagdad, a Nazi follower, had completed the first in 1933 and published it in the Iraqi paper Al-Alam Al-Arabi, known for its hatred toward Jews.

http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&TMID=111&LNGID=1&FID=388&PID=0&IID=3235


The complete idiot’s guide to understanding Iraq – Page 104 – Joseph Tragert – [Penguin] 2003 [ISBN 0028643984, 9780028643984] – 318 pages



On June 1, 1941, in the aftermath of the British victory, a campaign of terror by Iraqi “soldiers and civilians” was unleashed… The violence followed an abortive attempt by one Yunis Al Sabawi, a Nazi sympathizer, to slaughter all Jews in central Iraq. (He was deported before he could carry out the plan.) The spasm of violence was part of a two-day descent into chaos now known in Iraq as the farhud [dangerous collapse of order].

http://books.google.com/books?id=KonR1QVERaEC&pg=PA104





Darwish al-Miqdadi



Highlights:



* Arab writer, educator from Palestine.



* Moved to Iraq and ‘educated’ there with his pro-Nazi line.



* Associated with the 1941 Farhud pogrom.




Iraq between the two world wars: the militarist origins of tyranny – Page 91
Reeva S. Simon – 2004 – History – 235 pages

Al-Miqdadi accompanied Iraqi student missions to Germany in the 1930s. While there, the British report, he organized an Arab youth movement along Nazi lines …
http://books.google.com/books?id=GgYyxWqtO3IC&pg=PA91&lpg=PA91


Military preparations of the Arab community in Palestine, 1945-1948 – Page 149 – Haim Levenberg – [Psychology Press – ISBN 0714634395, 9780714634395] 1993 – 281 pages

The other candidate was Darwish Miqdadi, born in Tul-Karem. In 1929 he was expelled to Iraq after taking part in the disturbances of that year. After a spell he returned to Palestine and was re-arrested during the Arab Rebellion. When released, he fled once more to Iraq. In Iraq he did not abandon his nationalist activity; while working as a teacher and education inspector, he published his ideas. He participated in a delegation to Nazi Germany and collaborated with Rashid Ali. He was allowed to return to Palestine in October 1945, and in the summer of 1946 he succeeded Ahmad Shuaqyri as the Director of the Arab Office in Jerusalem.
http://books.google.com/books?id=sxvHK-Cq2RwC&pg=PA149

The Middle East: Abstracts and index: Volume 4  – Library Information and Research Service – 2000 – Snippet view [page 123]

Arab Nationalist Party and the Young Egypt, whose mission became to ideologize this rejection. In 1931, Darwish al-Miqdadi, a Palestinian graduate of the AUB, a teacher in Iraq and an ardent associate to most, if not all pan-Arabist networking of the 1930’s, published his “History of the Arab Nation” which was subsequently adopted as a textbook for the Arab history curriculum in Iraqi intermediate schools. In this book, the Arab ideology and the pan-Arabist view of imperialism were so intractably intertwined that Arab nationalism seemed unimaginable without its opposition to the west. For al-Miqdadi, it was the Arabs’ destiny to occupy the most strategic crossroads of world trade
http://books.google.com/books?id=m6JtAAAAMAAJ&q=Darwish+al-Miqdadi


Politics in Palestine: Arab factionalism and social disintegration, 1939-1948 By Issa Khalaf

Kamil Wafa al-Dajani… Mu’in al-Madi, and Darwish al-Miqdadi. Dajani, Madi, and Miqdadi were Mufti associates
http://books.google.com/books?id=9pRvIDxE5jAC&pg=PA141


The Farhud, the Mufti inspired Krystallnacht in Iraq, 1941 [J. Katz]

The entire Jewish world has heard of Krystallnacht. Yet very few have even heard of the Farhud, where Nazi sympathizers in Baghdad, killed… The Palestinians Fawzi Al-Qauqji Darwish Al Miqdadi, Mufti Haj Amin Al Husseini …

http://www.eretzyisroel.org/~jkatz/farhud.html


The Teaching of History in Iraq before the Rashid Ali Coup of 1941 by RS Simon – 1986


Husri had hired Darwish al-Miqdadi, a Palestinian graduate of the. American University in Beirut, in 1924-25 along with Anis al-Nasuli, whose …

http://www.jstor.org/stable/4283095

Political trends in the Arab world: the role of ideas and ideals in politics – Majid Khadduri – [Johns Hopkins Press] 1970 – 298 pages – Page 183


The third wrote the history of Islam as the “History of the Arab Nation,” Darwish al-Miqdadi, Ta’rikh al-Umma al-‘Arabiya… Darwish al-Miqdadi, a Palestinian teacher who lived in “Iraq-
http://books.google.com/books?&id=qvqBAAAAMAAJ&dq=al-Umma
http://books.google.com/books?id=qvqBAAAAMAAJ&q=Darwish


Palestinian Arab Nationalist and Historian Darwish al-Miqdadi (1898-1961)
http://www.zmo.de/veranstaltungen/2010/Out_of_place_Programme_2010.pdf


European Totalitarianism in the Mirrors of Contemporary Arab … From Ruz al-Yusuf after the so-called Hitler-Stalin pact was signed: “The Animals’ … of Palestinian Pan-Arab Historian Darwish al-Miqdadi (1897-1961). … Arabs and Nazism – Testing Paradigms of a Historical Encounter: Between Local …
http://www.orient-institut.org/English/EventsDetails.aspx?pageid=1694


Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Oct., 1966), pp. 2-17, by H.J. Cohen


The Anti – Jewish Farhud in baghdad, 1941… On June 1-2, 1941, thousands of Baghdad Moslems attacked the Jews of the town, murdering men and women, children and aged people, raping women and girls and plundering property…


Al-Miqdadi was also active in another organisation. In 1931, he set up a scout group called ‘al-Jawwal ….
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4282184


Lebanon and Arabism: national identity and state formation – Raghīd Sulh – 2004 – Political Science – 382 pages [Page 121] (ISBN 1860640516)


Sami Shawkat… radical Arab nationalists… The ANP consolidadted its influence further by infiltrating and virtually controlling a number of youth organizations, literary clubs and various political groupings. For example, Darwish al-Miqdadi (who was of Palestinian origin) was appointed head of the prestigous Teachers’ Training College (Baghdad) in 1939, a post thgrough which he was able to recruit new members to the party … al-Jawal, a youth organization established in 1934, came under ANP influence when two party members, Matta ‘Aqrawi and Darwish Miqdadi, assumed its chairmanship successively. Nadi al-Muthanna, similar to the Arab Club of Damascus, became ‘one of the many fronts or the cornerstone of this secret organization
http://books.google.com/books?id=49z7AFqIE2IC&pg=PA121





Al-Banna – Muslim Brotherhood

Highlights:



* Muslim Brotherhood’s founder al-Banna’s devout admiration for Hitler & Nazi regime.



* His push to distribute the Arabic translation of Mein Kampf.





The Muslim Brotherhood […]
Al-Banna was a devout admirer of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime. During the 1930s, the Brotherhood became more political in nature and an officially political group in 1939.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/muslimbrotherhood.html


Al-Banna was a devout admirer of a young Austrian writer named Adolf Hitler. His letters to Hitler were so supportive that when Hitler came to power in the 1930s he had Nazi intelligence make contact with Al-Banna to see if they could work together. Hitler had Al-banna establish a spy network for Nazi Germany throughout Arabia. Al-Banna promised Hitler that when General Rommel’s Nazi tank division arrived in Cairo and Alexandria, the Muslim Brotherhood would ensure all of the British troops would be killed.
http://www.shoaheducation.com/muslimnazi.html


Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11 – Pages 10 – Matthias Küntzel – 2007 – 180 pages


Muslim Brotherhood’s decision to distribute the Arabic translation of Hitler’s Mein Kampf and the flow of German money…

http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PR10





Reza Pahlevi


Of Iran





Highlights:



* Great admirer of Hitler.



* The ‘Mussolini of Islam.’



* Introduced racist laws.



* Refused to allow the allies operating against the Nazis.




World fascism: a historical encyclopedia: Volume 1 – Page 342 – Cyprian Blamires, Paul Jackson – 2006 – 750 pages



Reza Shah Pahlavi, interwar ruler of Iran, sometimes referred to as ‘the Mussolini of Islam’. He was an admirer of Hitler and an anti-semite who strove to cleanse the language and culture of his ‘Aryan’ land from anything alien. …

http://books.google.com/books?id=nvD2rZSVau4C&pg=PA342


Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran – James D. Cockcroft – 1988 – 111 pages – Page 36



Mohammed Resa’s father became a great admirer of Adolf Hitler, the Nazi leader who rose to power as Germany’s dictator in 1933…

http://books.google.com/books?&id=JiIEFLxZaJwC&dq=Hitler

Genocide, critical issues of the Holocaust: a companion to the film, Genocide – Page 348 – Alex Grobman, Daniel Landes, Sybil Milton – [Behrman House, Inc] 1983 – 501 pages – [ISBN 0940646048, 9780940646049]


In Iran, the nationalistic and pro-Nazi regime of Reza Shah introduced a host of anti-Jewish laws after 1936. So great was the attraction of nazism on the Iranian Shah that Arthur S. Millspaugh, the adminstrator general of Iran’s finances from 1922 to 1927 and from 1943 to 1945, testified “to all intents and purposes, Reza Shah handed over Persia to Hitler.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=DcdiVs9lwvcC&pg=PA348


World and Its Peoples: The Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa By Marshall Cavendish – Page 494 – Marshall Cavendish – [Marshall Cavendish] 2006



However. Iran’s declared neutrality in the war was complicated by Reza Shah’s pro-German sympathies. When he refused to allow the Soviets and British to use the Trans-Iranian railroad, under the pretext of Iran’s neutrality, the Allies ignored the declaration and invaded Iran in August 1941..

http://books.google.com/books?id=j894miuOqc4C&pg=PA494





Ibn Saud


Of Saudi Arabia


Highlights:



* Close [secret] ties with the Nazis.



* Highly racist against Jews, through his ‘Koranic’ view.




The secret war against the Jews: how western espionage betrayed the Jewish people, by John Loftus, Mark Aarons, [Macmillan] 1997 [ISBN 0312156480, 9780312156480] – Page 68 – John Loftus, Mark Aarons – 1997 – 658 pages – Preview


Unlike his other activities, he tried to keep the Saudi-Nazi connection a deep secret. According to sources on both sides of the Atlantic, it was Philby who advised Ibn Saud energetically to court Nazi Germany in the months before the war. The relationship was mutually beneficial. As one US intelligence study found, the Nazis “recognized that King Ibn Saud’s help was essential for renewing the fight against the British and the Jews in Palestine.” The Germans proposed that a new government should be formed in Palestine, under the control of Jack’s old friend, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. Further, “Jews who had settled in Palestine after the First World War would not be allowed to remain.”


In January 1939 Saudi Arabia established diplomatic relations with the Third Reich, and Ibn Saud confided to the Germans that at heart he “hated the English. ” In the following months he concluded arms deals with Germany and signed a  friendship and trade treaty with Japan. Philby was pleased, especially as Ibn Saud concealed his secret dealings with the Axis from both the British and Americans. The Nazis also were pleased with the progress they had made with the king. They sent their best Middle East agent, Fritz Grobba, to meet with Ibn Saud, and even promised to obtain for him the most prestigious position in the Moslem world, the caliphate. The Saudi-Third Reich connection flourished, with their main link being their mutual hatred for the Jews.
The Nazis even promised to supply Ibn Saud with weapons, ammunition, and an armaments factory, and, according to some accounts, gave him bribes during most of World War II.


The king had many reasons for his secret arms deals with Berlin. The primary purpose “was to increase the flow of weapons which [Ibn Saud] had secretly been sending to the Arabs fighting in Palestine,” in order to “check the Zionist influx that had followed the Balfour Declaration.” Although he later claimed to be genuinely horrified by the Nazis’ Final Solution , Ibn Saud’s attitude toward the Jews was extreme, even by Arab standards. They were “a race accursed by God
http://books.google.com/books?id=trU7nY-T-4EC&pg=PA68

The Nazi Hydra in America: Suppressed History of a Century – Page 368 – Glen Yeadon, John Hawkins – 2008 – 700 pages


Ibn Saud was pro-Nazi. To stay out of British prison as a Nazi sympathizer, Philby added another angle to the 1940 deal by keeping Saudi Arabia neutral during the war for a bribe. In effect, the Saudis were paid to not pump …
http://books.google.com/books?id=vh7sx2xtjGEC&pg=PA368


Quicksand: America’s Pursuit of Power in the Middle East – Geoffrey Wawro – 2010 – 704 pages – Page 71


Saudi Arabia, the king protested, was in the same predicament as Nazi Germany: “ encircled” by hostile powers. … In 1941, Ibn Saud sent a royal envoy to Vichy to negotiate for the eventual cession—by the victorious Germans, …
http://books.google.com/books?id=OiS9UVotQfUC&pg=PT71


F.D.R. meets Ibn Saud – William Alfred Eddy – 1954 – 45 pages – Page 34


… who had suffered indescribable horrors at the hands of the Nazis: eviction, destruction of their homes, torture and mass-murder. … He, Ibn Saud, could not conceive of leaving an enemy in a position to strike back after defeat. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=jVUxAAAAIAAJ&q=nazis


Nazi propaganda for the Arab world – Page 34 – Jeffrey Herf – 2009 – 335 pages – Preview


Following a series of visits in 1938 to Germany by representatives of Saudi King Ibn Saud concerning arms purchases, the Nazi regime established diplomatic relations with Saudi Arabia in January 1939. In return for German political and …
http://books.google.com/books?id=YzQNSTvHv-sC&pg=PA34


1948: a history of the first Arab-Israeli war
Benny Morris [Yale University Press] 2008, p. 33



(1946) Before reaching Palestine, the members visited Arab capitals. At Riadh, King Ibn Sa’ud told them: “The Jews are our enemies everywhere. Wherever they are found…

http://books.google.com/books?id=CC7381HrLqcC&pg=PA33





Shakib Arslan


Highlights:



* pan-Arabist, pan-Islamist, Muslim cleric.



* Pro Nazi.



* In service of the Nazis – translated ‘Mein Kampf’ into Arabic (though that one -at the end- wasn’t published).




Arabism, Islamism and the Palestine question, 1908-1941: a political history – Page 357 – Basheer M. Nafi – [ISBN 0863722350, 9780863722356] (Garnet & Ithaca Press) 1998 – 459 pages


Amongst those who came to be known for their pro-German views were Shakib Arslan , who returned to exile in … it was the efficiency of the Nazi state, its ability to liberate Germany from the constraints of the Versailles Peace Treaty

http://books.google.com/books?id=WhCjkcZZK1AC&pg=PA357


Nazi propaganda for the Arab world – Pages 25-26, 273 – Jeffrey Herf – 2009 – 335 pages


[p. 25]

Hentig… He thought that “a truly good Arabic translation of the Fuhrer’s work would have great propagandistic value.”

[p. 26] and “would meet with extensive sympathy in the whole Arabicspeaking world from Morocco to India… in Arabic that had “the tone of the book that every Muslim understands: the Koran..

Hentig called on Shakib Arslan, a Geneva-based advocate of Muslim activism and Arab nationalism, confidant of Haj Amin el-Husseini, and editor of La Nation arabe, an influencial journal of Arab nationalist opinion, to do the translation. Hentig insisted that the completed text be read by a “scholar of the Koran who will give it the sacred tone which will be understood and valued in the whole Islamic world, a world that reads the Koran.” By November 1938, Arslan’s translation of Mein Kampf was almost done. Its 960 pages were to be published in an edition… On December 21, 1938, the project of an Arabic-language edition of Mein Kampf published by the Nazi regime ended.

http://books.google.com/books?id=YzQNSTvHv-sC&pg=PA25

On Arslan, see William C. Cleveland, Islam against the West: Shakib Arslan and the Campaign for Islamic Nationalism (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985); and review essay by Martin Kramer, “The Natuon of Shakib Arslan,” Middle Eastern Studies, no. 24 (October 1987) 529-33.

http://books.google.com/books?id=YzQNSTvHv-sC&pg=PA273


International politics and the Middle East: old rules, dangerous game By Leon Carl Brown – I. B. Tauris, 1984 – Page 154


…partitioning Palestine into seperate Jewish and Arab states, a large pan-Arab congress was held in Blutan, Syria… other notables included… and the well-known advocate of Arabism, Shakib Arslan, a Druze from Lebanon.

http://books.google.com/books?id=opRRT_kW7hIC&pg=PA154





King Farouk

Of Egypt


Highlights:



* Colaboration with the Nazis.



* Espionage.




The record of collaboration of King Farouk of Egypt with the Nazis and their ally, the Mufti: the official Nazi records of the King’s alliance and of the Mufti’s plans for bombing Jerusalem and Tel Aviv ; memorandum submitted to the United Nations, June 1948.Authors: Nation Associates (New York, N.Y.), United Nations
Publisher: The Nation Associates, 1948
http://books.google.com/books?id=tdhmAAAAMAAJ


The beast reawakens – Martin A. Lee [Taylor & Francis] 1999 [ISBN 0415925460, 9780415925464] Page 122


King Farouk, who ruled Egypt during the Hitler era, was also a Nazi sympathizer. The king’s palace became a rendezvous point for Axis spies and couriers. Members of the royal family were involved in espionage for Fascist Italy, and many of the king’s mistresses did double duty as Nazi agents.
http://books.google.com/books?id=SX4B7pNG3W8C&pg=PA122


Icon of Evil: Hitler’s Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam – David Dalin, John Rothmann, Alan Dershowitz – 2009 – 227 pages – Page 41


In a letter to Farouk, the mufti assured the king “that he would be received with all honors due a friendly reigning sovereign” and that he would be given every possible means by the Nazis for continuing the activities of his Egyptian …
http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC&pg=PA41





SSNP


Highlights:



* Inspired by Hitler, Nazis.



* Imitation of Nazi hymm, symbols, etc.



* Supremacy.




Lebanon: current issues and background – Page 192 – John C. Rolland – 2003 – 235 pages – Preview


The Syrian Socialist Nationalist Party (SSNP) The SSNP was established in Lebanon in the 1930s by Antun Saadah who hoped … symbol was modeled after the Nazi swastika. The SSNP has a long history of terrorism and subversion in Lebanon. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=-JVOKeNkllgC&pg=PA192


The Near East since the First World War: a history to 1995 – Malcolm Yapp – [Longman] 1996 – 597 pages – Page 113


Like many parties of the 1930s the SSNP adopted the styles of Fascism: Saada was known as al-za’im (the Führer) and the party anthem was “Syria, Syria, über alles” sung to the same tune as the German national anthem.

http://books.google.com/books?&id=BextAAAAMAAJ&dq=ssnp


Colonial citizens: republican rights, paternal privilege, and gender in French Syria and Lebanon, by Elizabeth Thompson, 2000, p. 192

At about the same time, the first Lebanese proto-fascist group emerged in public. The Syrian National Party (Hizb al-qawmi al-suri) was founded in secret in 1932 by a Lebanese emigrant returned from Brazil… Sa’ada used the title fuhrer and a swastika-style cross as an emblem, and adopted a party anthem entitled “Syria, Syria Above All,” set to the tune of “Deutchland Uber Alles.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=B9fruGejwmUC&pg=PA192


All honorable men: the social origins of war in Lebanon – Page 150 – Michael Johnson – 2001 – 298 pages – Preview


Saadeh, the party’s ‘leader for life’, was an admirer of Adolph Hitler and influenced by Nazi and fascist ideology. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=Zydtz0dDntQC&pg=PA150


Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East [Volume 4
Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East, ISBN 0028960114, 9780028960111, Macmillan Reference USA] – Reeva S. Simon, Philip Mattar, Richard W. Bulliet – 1996 – 2182 pages [Page 1717]


The Syrian Social Nationalist party (SSNP) was the brainchild of Antun SA’ADA, a Greek Orthodox Lebanese who was inspired by Nazi and fascist ideologies. Originally known as the PARTI POPULAIRE SYRIEN, the party operated in secret until…
http://books.google.com/books?id=ZXltAAAAMAAJ&q=sa’ada





Young Egypt


(Misr al-Fatdh)
[Ahmed Hussein]


Highlights:



* Founded and was on Nazi, fascist elements, imitating Hitler Youth (“Egypt, Egypt, above all”).

* Nazi – ideologically, very racist, even after “break up” with the Nazis.





Egypt’s young rebels: “Young Egypt,” 1933-1952 – James P. Jankowski – 1975 – 176 pages


Young Egypt became willing to admit influence and/or borrowings from European fascism, Husayn stating that Young … brothers cooperating together” ; and his final article from Germany, in the form of an open letter to Hitler, …
http://books.google.com/books?id=8dFmAAAAMAAJ&q=young+egypt


The Continuum political encyclopedia of the Middle East – Avraham Sela – [Continuum] 2002 – 944 pages – Page 273


Some groups displayed openly Fascist tendencies — such as the “Young Egypt” Party (Misr al- Fatah), founded in the mid- 1930s by Ahmad Hussein (1911-1982). In 1940 Britain forced the dismissal of Premier Maher and the Chief-of-Staff, …

http://books.google.com/books?&id=YJwsAQAAIAAJ&dq=Ahmad+Hussein


Islamism, fascism and terrorism (Part 3) – Asia Times Dec 4, 2002 [Marc Erikson]

Islamism, or fascism with an Islamic face, was born with and of the Muslim Brotherhood. It proved (and improved) its fascist core convictions and practices through collaboration with the Nazis in the run-up to and during World War II. It proved it during the same period through its collaboration with the overtly fascist “Young Egypt” (Misr al-Fatah) movement, founded in October 1933 by lawyer Ahmed Hussein and modeled directly on the Hitler party, complete with paramilitary Green Shirts aping the Nazi Brown Shirts, Nazi salute and literal translations of Nazi slogans. Among its members, Young Egypt counted two promising youngsters and later presidents, Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar El-Sadat.

http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/DL04Ak01.html


Semites and anti-Semites: an inquiry into conflict and prejudice – Page 148 – Bernard Lewis – [W. W. Norton & Company] 1999 – 295 pages [ISBN 0393318397, 9780393318395] – [pp. 148-9]

Several of the political parties founded at this time reveal the influence of the Nazi model. In 1934, when the anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws were promulgated, telegrams of congratulation were sent to the Fuhrer from all over the Arab and Islamic worlds, especially from Morocco and Palestine, where German propaganda had been most active. By September 1937, when a major pan-Arab congress was held at Blutan, with the struggle against Zionism as its main theme, the only European present was a German.

 
Before long, political parties of the Nazi and fascist type began to appear, complete with paramilitary youth organizations, colored shirts, strict discipline, and more or less charismatic leaders. Even some of the older parties were affected by these trends.

 More obviously Nazi in form was the Young Egypt Society, formally established in October 1933. Popularly known as “the Green Shirts,” it consisted of a paramilitary hierarchy of sections …

[p. 149]
…Their ideology and form of organization and activity remained, however, thoroughly Nazi, including such devices as fascist salutes, torchlight parades, leader worship [ther slogan was “One party, one state, one leadership”] and,
most characteristically, their use of gangs of toughs to terrorize and silence their political opponents.

  Not least among the borrowings of Young Egypt from Young Germany was its racism and anti-Semitism. This included support for Nazi philosophy, viciously anti-Jewish propaganda in the party press, and the organization of boycotts and harassment directed against the Jewish community in Egypt.

  Despite the public breach with the Germans after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, the inner circle of pro-Axis politicians congregated around the king, and led … espionage…

http://books.google.com/books?id=GteStbiDEjAC&pg=PA148


Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11 – Page 27 – Matthias Küntzel – 2007 – 180 pages

Minister, was to educate “Iraqi youth in the military spirit in the German fashion” and sent a delegation to march with the Hitler Youth at the 1938 Nuremberg Nazi party rally. Finally in 1933, in Egypt Ahmad Husayn created the “Young Egypt”…
http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PA27

Teaching about the Middle East – Page 137 – Social Studies School Service – [Social Studies] 2002 – 330 pages – [ISBN 1560041005, 9781560041009]


The Young Egyptians movement, popular in the 1930s, looked to the Hitler Youth as its model. At the same time, Egyptians recognized the importance of their own Muslim heritage. Perhaps Islam would provide the best ideological structure …
http://books.google.com/books?id=bhPkkMIDdl8C&pg=PA137

Die Welt des Islams, 1985, p. 134

From its beginnings in the early Thirties the party shared many outward appearances with the European fascists: a uniform (green shirts), a salute (outstretched right arm, palm open and finger pointing to the sky), a flag, a paramilitary organization which demanded absolute obedience to a leader. Like the PPS in Syria, Young Egypt used ultra-nationalist slogans, based on “Deutschland, Deutschland iiber alles”: In the case of Young Egypt “Egypt, Egypt, above all…”.

http://books.google.com/books?&id=bQcsAAAAIAAJ&dq=young+egypt

[PDF] http://www.tcd.ie/history//undergraduate/pdf/bwwii/jstorarticles/Stefan%20Wild%20National%20Socialims%20in%20the%20Arab%20Middle%20East%201933%201939.pdf

FrontPage Magazine – Nazi Influence on the Middle East During WWII
Jan 5, 2005 … In October 1933, pro-Axis Young Egypt Party was founded. … translator of Hitler’s Mein Kampf into Arabic, describing the Fascist despot in …
http://archive.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=16533





The Baa’th

(B’ath, Baath)




Highlights:


* Baath founders: S. al-Husri [the ‘Arab Fichte’] and M. Aflaq, both influnced by German Fascist, nazi writing.



* Husri’s support for the pro-Nazi coup of Rachid ‘Ali.



* Aflaq though Christian, admired Islam. (Some even say he converted).



* Ideologically – Racist against: Persians, Jews, Kurds & other.



* ‘Master Arab race’ of Baathism.





Semites and anti-Semites: an inquiry into conflict and prejudice – Page 148 – Bernard Lewis – [W. W. Norton & Company] 1999 – 295 pages [ISBN 0393318397, 9780393318395] – [pp. 147-8]

The mood of the 1930s was vividly described by Syrian Sami al-Jundi, an early leader of the Ba’th party, in an autobiographical memoir:

We were racists, admiting Nazism, reading its books and the source of its thought, particulary Nietzche. . . . Fichte, and H. S. Chamberlain’s Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, which revolves on race. We were the first to think of translating Mein Kampf.

 Whoever lived during this period in Damascus would appreciate the incliniation of the Arab people to Nazism, for Nazism was the power which serve as its chapion, and he who is defeated will by nature love the victor.”

 Later al-Jundi describes how in 1940 he was looking for a copy of Rosenberg’s Myth of the Twentieth Century in Damascus, and finally found a French abridgment of it belonging to Michel Aflaq, one of the two founders of the Ba’th.

http://books.google.com/books?id=GteStbiDEjAC&pg=PA147


The United States and the Middle East: a search for new perspectives – Page 266 – Hooshang Amirahmadi – [SUNY Press] 1993 [ISBN 0791412253, 9780791412251] – 491 pages



Founded in the Levant during the 1940s, the Baath party advocates Pan-Arabism ( ie, unity of the entire Arab world… the founders of the Baath party, Michel ‘Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar, were influenced by fascist thought during their education in France during the 1930s… Itaqi Baathis ideology contains racist elements, especially against Persians, Jews, Kurds, and other minorities…

http://books.google.com/books?id=AmSIOJ5ekIoC&pg=PA266

Encyclopedia of the Developing World: Index – Thomas M. Leonard – 2006 – Social Science – 1759 pages – Page 71



… Pan-Arabism with an emphasis on socialism incorporating ideas from Italian fascism. Ba’ath ideology…

http://books.google.com/books?id=3mE04D9PMpAC&pg=PA71

Fascism: Past, Present, Future, by Walter Laqueur, [Oxford University Press US] 1997
[ISBN 019511793X, 9780195117936] – Page 162




At that time, fascism outside Europe has become a possiblity and, in some cases, a reality. The Iraqi & Syrian regimes have pronounced fascist features… both, the Iraqi & Syrian leadership belongs to the Ba’th Party, an elitist, pan-Arabist group that arose in the 1930s partly as a result of the rise of fascism in Europe.

http://books.google.com/books?id=fWggQTqioXcC&pg=PA162&lpg=PA162

America at war since 1945: politics and diplomacy in Korea, Vietnam, and the Gulf War, by Gary Donaldson [Greenwood Publishing Group] 1996 – Page 144


The Baath party had its origins in European fascism and Arab nationalism…

http://books.google.com/books?id=1wOv3enW1ccC&pg=PA144

The politics of intelligence and American wars with Iraq – Page 21 – Ofira Seliktar – 2008 – 214 pages


Drawing on a large volume of newly available research on “generic fascism,” a number of experts pointed out … Ba’ath Party of Syria and Iraq as conceived by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Bitar combined both Nazi and communist elements. …

http://books.google.com/books?id=vd54vdSGMMgC&pg=PA21

A Middle East reader, compiled by Irene L. Gendzier, Pegasus, 1969, page 161



Aflaq spent his holidays in France, with Salah al Bitar. He came back to Syria full of admiration for the works of Alfred Rosenberg, the theorist of Nazi racism, and in particular for “The Myth of the Twentieth Century, which he had read in Grosclaud’s translation. He thought at the time that Hitler’s Germany, by contrast with the communist countries, had succeeded in achieving the perfect synthesis of nationalism and socialism.”
http://books.google.com/books?id=QsNAAAAAIAAJ&dq=rosenberg


Eric Rouleau… Futhermore, when power in Iraq was seized by pro-German nationalists in the coup of Rashid ‘Ali al-Gilani, ‘Aflaq formed s committee which assured the new regime of its full support

http://books.google.com/books?id=LzfSAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA166

The Ba’th and the creation of modern Syria‎ – Page 15 David Roberts – Political Science – [Croom Helm] 1987 – 182 pages



The Birth of Ba’thist Ideology… The theory of ‘Greater Syria’… Sa’adeh visited Germany and certainly had contact with the National Socialist and Fascist regimes. The Ba’th, or at least ‘Aflaq, shared these ideas to some extent. It is not too long a step from ‘Gross-Deutchland’ to ‘Greater Syria.’

Since then, of course, the Ba’th has parted with the PPS and indeed banned it, but it has quietly absorbed its message…

http://books.google.com/books?id=Ix2NAAAAMAAJ&dq=germany
http://books.google.com/books?id=Ix2NAAAAMAAJ&dq=fascist

CNN, March 21, 2003

Baath Party is a mishmash of socialism and Arabism.
http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0303/21/se.13.html

The politics of intelligence and American wars with Iraq – Page 21 – Ofira Seliktar – 2008 – 214 pages


Drawing on a large volume of newly available research on “generic fascism,” a number of experts pointed out … Ba’ath Party of Syria and Iraq as conceived by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Bitar combined both Nazi and communist elements. …

http://books.google.com/books?id=vd54vdSGMMgC&pg=PA21

Syria: Ballots Or Bullets?: Democracy, Islamism, and Secularism in the Levant, Carsten Wieland, 2006, pp. 102-3



Sati al-Husri (1882-1968), the most infuelncial pan-Arab ideologue… He admired Fichte, Hegel, and Herder, and his key ideological role in the Arab world earned him the nickname of “the Arab Fichte.”
[p. 103]
The strongest influence of pan-Arabists was first witnessed in Iraq in the 1920 and 1930 when Hitler rose to power in Germany. In 1941, Husri supported a fascist coup in Baghdad…

The main ideologue of the subsequent Baath Party in Syria was himself a Christian (however, he reportedly converted to Islam shortly before his death…
Michel Aflaq was born in 1910 in Damascus and went to Paris to study philosophy at the Sorbonne University. There he found the idea of Arabness in Western literature, as had many others before him. He viewed Islam as an essential part of the Arab socio-cultural heritage…

http://books.google.com/books?id=uOMp58pfdkoC&pg=PA102

“Saddam’s Brain,” The Weekly Standard Nov 1, 2002, Vol. 8, No. 09 by David Brooks



From the November 11, 2002 issue: The ideology behind the thuggery.



MICHEL AFLAQ was born in Damascus in 1910, a Greek Orthodox Christian. He won a scholarship to study philosophy at the Sorbonne sometime between 1928 and 1930 (biographies differ), and there he studied Marx, Nietzsche, Lenin, Mazzini, and a range of German nationalists and proto-Nazis. Aflaq became active in Arab student politics with his countryman Salah Bitar, a Sunni Muslim. Together, they were thrilled by the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party, but they also came to admire the organizational structure Lenin had created within the Russian Communist party.

http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/001/837uvzrs.asp

American Government and Politics Today 2008: The Essentials, by Barbara A. Bardes, Mack C. Shelley, Steffen W. Schmidt, [Cengage Learning] 2008, [ISBN 0495503258, 9780495503255], p. 18

Although Baathists are often referred to as Arab nationalists, Baath ideology goes beyond pan-Arab nationalism and Baath ideology actually views the Arabs as a kind of master race. Baathism glorifies constant struggle, the ideological similarity between Baathism and fascism is quite striking.
http://books.google.com/books?id=NIrspBw3lNMC&pg=PA1




al-Muthanna Club & al-Futuwwa (in Iraq)

(Saib [Sami] Shawkat & Al-Sabawi)

‘Farhud’ massacre – massgrave

Highlights:



* Importance of education in the fascist interwar era.



* ‘Hitler Youth’ type.



* Participated in Nurmberg’s Nazi Youth march.



* Relations with leadership of Hitler Youth.



* al-Muthanna Club’s Sami Shawkat’s hateful [xenophobia and] Nazism.



* S. Shawkat’s indoctrination of youth into ‘dying for Arabism.’



* (Sami’s brother) Naji Shawkat’s Nazism.



* Participation in the Farhud pogrom (massacre) in 1941, Baghdad.




Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East: Volume 2 – Reeva S. Simon, Philip Mattar, Richard W. Bulliet – 1996 – 2182 pages


… to paramilitary youth groups strongly reminiscent of the Hitler Youth of Nazi Germany. In Ba’thist Iraq, the futuwwa is one of three paramilitary youth organizations that belong to the state-run General Federation of Iraqi Youth. 
http://books.google.com/books?id=KE8YAAAAIAAJ&q=futuwwa+hitler


Independent Iraq, 1932-1958: a study in Iraqi politics, Majid Khadduri, [Oxford University Press] 1960, p. 173



He also invited the King to send a Futuwwa delegation to Nuremberg to attend the parade of the Nazi Party convention in September 1938. A delegation of thirty members of the Futuwwa was subsequently sent, received by the …

http://books.google.com/books?id=uh4xAAAAIAAJ&q=futuwwa


Moreover, when Baldur von Schirach, the Reich Youth Leader, stopped in Baghdad on his return flight from Tehran in the autumn of 1937, he had an audience with King Ghazi and suggested that he should pay attention to the Futuwwa movement …
http://books.google.com/books?id=uh4xAAAAIAAJ&q=A+delegation


Encyclopedia of the Holocaust: Volume 2 – Israel Gutman – 1990 – 1905 pages – Page 716



In 1938 the Al-Futuwwa youth organization sent a delegate to the Nuremberg Nazi party rally, and in turn hosted the Hitler Youth leader Baldur von Schirach in Baghdad. In 1939 all students attending secondary schools, as well as their teachers, were obliged to join..

http://books.google.com/books?&id=1SoYAAAAIAAJ&dq=Al-Futuwwa


Simon, Reeva. “The Teaching of History in Iraq Before the Rashid Ali Coup of 1941.” Middle Eastern Studies 22, no.1 (January 1986); 37-51



The Iraqis, like the French, the Germans, and the Japanese during the interwar period, used their schools to inculcate nationalism. The curriculum was published and instituted… emphasized Arab nationalism and Iraq’s important role in a pan-Arab union…. accelerated recruitment by the Iraqi ministry of Education of Syrian and Palestinian teachers…
From 1920 until 1941, the three men instrumental in foreign educational policy and in impanting a nationalist ideology in the schools were Muhammad Fadhi al-Jamali, Sami Shawkat and, most important, Sati al-Husri.

[…]

Sami Shawkat, a physician not a pedagogue, with little interest in Iraqi education beyond instilling the militarist sprit in the schools, is most noted for his lectures to students on the ‘Profession of Death’, telling them that the most important thing for them to learn was how to kill and how to die. He helped to institute military instruction in the schools and promoted an Iraqi Hitler Youth-type paramilitary youth organization, the Futuwwah, included German as the third language in the secondary schools, and sent student…
http://www.jstor.org/pss/4283095


Republic of fear: the politics of modern Iraq – Page 179 – Kanan Makiya – 1998 – 323 pages


The Muthanna Club, along with its affiliate the Palestine Defence League and the Futuwwa organization, … Shawkat carried a letter from the Mufti to von Papen congratulating Hitler and referring to the struggle against “the democracies …

http://books.google.com/books?id=frDO73fi83IC&pg=PA179


Sovereign creations: pan-Arabism and political order in Syria and Iraq, Malik Mufti, 1996 [286 pages], pp. 28-29



The architect of Iraq’s education policy was Sati’ al-Husri… “German nationalism, with its emphasis upon language and history as unifying factors, was the perfect model for Arab nationalism…

In accordance with this nationalist agenda, Husri’s educational policy sought to instill a sense of common identity in the Iraqi people by stressing Arab history and culture, promoting standard Arabic over regional dialects, and trying to suppress particularistic identities such as those of the Shi’is, Kurds, Christians, and Jews.
After 1923… Husri, along with his successors Fadhil Jamail and Sami Shawkat pressed ahead with their militaristic brand of national education, importing in the process large numebers of foreigners (particularly Palestinians) to teach Arab history and culture.

[…]
Despite some trepidation at the xenophobic extremes to which Husri and Sami Shawkat often went, Faisal and his advisers appreciated their efforts at laying the ideological foundations for Hashemite pan-Arabism.

http://books.google.com/books?id=px20DEwGH6cC&pg=PA28


Pan-Arabism’s Legacy of Confrontation with Iran
By: Dr. Kaveh Farrokh





…Arab racism against Iranians…


Satia Al-Husri spawned a whole generation of men who advocated violence. One example is Sami Shawkat who is famous for his 1933 speech “Sina’at al-Mawt” (manufacture of death) in which he rationalizes mass violence and war as the way to achieve Arab aspirations. Tragically, this speech was widely distributed in Arab schools and in Iraq in particular. It is interesting that Shawkat teaches that “force is the soil which sprouts the seeds of truth”. Although not widely known, Shawkat was a main force in the organization of the Futuwwa Youth Organization – a movement modeled directly after the Nazi Hitler Youth Movement. The Futuwwa set the pace for future Arab chauvinist movements, such as the B’aath party of Iraq and today’s followers of Bin Laden. It is interesting to note that Shawkat’s ideas became somewhat too hot to handle, even for the pan-Arabists – Satia Al-Husri later disowned Sami Shawkat.


It is worth noting that Sami Shawkat’s brother, Naji, who by 1941 was a member of the Arab committee in Iraq (which had absorbed the Futuwwa), gave Franz von Papen (a high ranking German official of Nazi Germany in 1941) a letter which actually congratulated Hitler for the brutality that he inflicted upon the Jews.

http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/history-article2.htm

History Matters: Past as Prologue in Building Democracy in Iraq by E Davis – 2005


During the 1930s, Pan-Arabists developed proto-fascist organizations such as the al-Muthanna Club and its al-Futuwwa movement, and in June 1941 they participated in an attack on Baghdad’s Jewish community.
http://www.fpri.org/orbis/4902/davis.historymattersiraq.pdf

The Farhud [United States Holocaust Museum]

[…]

The outbreak of mob violence against Baghdad Jewry known as the Farhud (Farhud is an Arabic term best translated as “pogrom” or “violent dispossession”) erupted on June 1, 1941. It was a turning point in the history of the Jews in Iraq.


In Baghdad the results of this policy were much more severe. On the afternoon of June 1, 1941, when the Regent and his entourage returned to Baghdad and British troops surrounded the city, the Jews believed that the danger from the pro-Nazi regime had passed. They ventured out to celebrate the traditional Jewish harvest festival holiday of Shavuot. Riots broke out, targeting the Jews of Baghdad. These riots, known as the Farhud, lasted for two days, ending on June 2, 1941.


Iraqi soldiers and policemen who had supported Rashid Ali al-Gailani’s coup d’etat in April and Futtuwa youths who were sympathetic to the Axis incited and led the riots. Unlike in previous incidents, rioters focused on killing. Many civilians in Baghdad and Bedouins from the city’s outskirts joined the rioters, taking part in the violence and helping themselves to a share in the booty. During the two days of violence, rioters murdered between 150 and 180 Jews, injured 600 others, and raped an undetermined number of women. They also looted some 1,500 stores and homes. The community leaders estimated that about 2,500 families — 15 percent of the Jewish community in Baghdad — suffered directly from the pogrom. According to the official report of the commission investigating the incident, 128 Jews were killed, 210 were injured, and over 1,500 businesses and homes were damaged. Rioting ended at midday on Monday, June 2, 1941, when Iraqi troops entered Baghdad, killed some hundreds of the mob in the streets and reestablished order in Baghdad.

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007277

Iraq [Jewish Virtual Library

Fascism and Antisemitism (1933–1941)

[…]
Iraqi Jews did not know the kind of *antisemitism that prevailed in some Christian states of Europe. The first attempt to copy modern European antisemitic libels was made in 1924 by Sādiq Rasūl al-Qādirī, a former officer in the White Russian Army. He published his views, particularly that of worldwide conspiracy, in a Baghdadi newspaper. The Jewish response in its own weekly newspaper, al-Misbah, compelled al-Qādirī to apologize, although he later published his antisemitic memoirs.

At that time the press drew a clear dividing line between Judaism and Zionism. This line became blurred in the 1930s, along with the demand to remove Jews from the genealogical tree of the Semitic peoples. This anti-Jewish trend coincided with Faysal’s death in 1933, which brought about a noticeable change for the Jewish community. His death also came at the same time as the Assyrian massacre, which created a climate of insecurity among the minorities. Iraqi Jewry at that time had been subject to threats and invectives emanating not only from extremist elements, but also from official state institutions as well. Dr. Sāmī Shawkat, a high official in the Ministry of Education in the pre-war years and for a while its director general, was the head of “al-Futuwwa,” an imitation of Hitler’s Youth. In one of his addresses, “The Profession of Death,” he called on Iraqi youth to adopt the way of life of Nazi Fascists. In another speech he branded the Jews as the enemy from within, who should be treated accordingly. In another, he praised Hitler and Mussolini for eradicating their internal enemies (the Jews). Syrian and Palestinian teachers often supported Shawkat in his preaching.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0010_0_09571.html


Armies of the young: child soldiers in war and terrorism – Page 107 – David M. Rosen – 2005 – 199 pages
for boys between the ages of fifteen and twenty, they were also modeled on Hitler Youth. … Iraq he helped set up an Arab Committee to promote collaboration between Iraq and the Nazis and brought the Iraqi al-Futuwwa under its control.


http://books.google.com/books?id=zQYQ0tho6mAC&pg=PA107


Republic of fear: the politics of modern Iraq By Kanan Makiya, university of California press [page 178]

The pan-Arab government also sponsored the Futuwwa Youth organization, modelled after the Hitler Youth movement.
http://books.google.com/books?id=MBSNs4sIYn0C&pg=PA178


Learning Not to Love Saddam by Paul Berman, New York Times, March 31, 2003

Modern totalitarianism arose in Europe in the years after World War I. It took different forms — Fascist, Communist and Nazi. But the movements shared a number of traits: apocalyptic and paranoid ideologies, a total police state, a taste for murder. Other versions of that same totalitarianism arose in Arab and Muslim countries in precisely those years.

One of the Muslim variations eventually emerged as the Islamist radicalism of Osama bin Laden, the Taliban and other movements. A second version evolved into Saddam Hussein’s Baath dictatorship. The European inspiration for those movements is not too hard to detect, especially in the case of the Baath, which got started in 1943 in an atmosphere of ardent sympathy for the fascist Axis.

Kanan Makiya, an expatriate Iraqi intellectual and a main author of the transition report, described in his book “Republic of Fear” how these European movements influenced Islamic radicalism philosophically and organizationally. There was, for instance, the model of the Hitler Youth for the pan-Arabist Futuwwa Youth of the 1930’s, which, Mr. Makiya pointed out, pioneered a paramilitary culture “as if presaging the Baath militas” in later years.

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/31/opinion/31BERM.html?pagewanted=all

Die Welt des Islams‎ – Page 136 – Religion – 1985

The Futuwwa-movement in Iraq was a youth-organization, not a political party. The Futuwwah was an official youth movement which comprised all students of the higher class of high school.
http://books.google.com/books?id=bQcsAAAAIAAJ&dq=Futuwwah
A delegation of the Futuwwah participated in the march of the Hitler-Jugend at the Parteitag in Nuremberg in September 1938.
http://books.google.com/books?id=bQcsAAAAIAAJ&q=hitler-jugend

Armies of the young: child soldiers in war and terrorism, by David M. Rosen, 2005, p. 106
The al-Futuwwa youth groups connected Palestinian youth to fascist youth movements elsewhere in the Middle East.

http://books.google.com/books?id=zQYQ0tho6mAC&pg=PA106

Rethinking nationalism in the Arab Middle East by James P. Jankowski, I. Gershoni – 1997 – History – 372 pages, P. 18


Pan-Arab radicalism was expressed in diverse forms in 1930s Iraq. In 1935 the “Muthana Club” was established in Baghdad and rapidly became a forum for the educated from all parts of the Arab world and a center for the dissemination of Arab nationalist propaganda. Nationalist radicalization was also evident in the formation, in the late 1930s, of s paramilitary youth movement [al-futuwwa] modeled on fascist and Nazi youth organizations, sponsored by the government and officially instituted in Iraqi schools

http://books.google.com/books?id=_a1NNyZUXAgC&pg=PA18

Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East, Volume 2, Reeva S. Simon, Philip Mattar, Richard W. Bulliet, Macmillan Reference USA, 1996, pp. 686-882

[p. 686]
In another context, the term has been used in Iraq, first in the 1930s and again since the Ba th party takeover in 1968, to refer to paramilitary youth groups strongly reminiscent of the Hitler Youth of Nazi Germany. In Ba’thist Iraq, …
http://books.google.com/books?id=KE8YAAAAIAAJ&dq=hitler+youth

[p. 882]
the schools by Sayi al-Husri, Muhammad… al-JAMAIL, and Sami SHAWKAT throught the 1920 and 1930s, was supported by Faisal’s heir, GHAZI IBN FAISAL, who ruled from 1933 until 1939. The creation of pan-Arab clubs, such as al-Muthanna and the FUTUWWA youth movement, made Baghdad a center for pan-Arabism and a haven for exiled Palestinians, led by Jerusalem mufti (Muslim religious..

http://books.google.com/books?id=KE8YAAAAIAAJ&dq=futuwwa




Najjada [Najjada, Najjadeh]

(Nasuli)



Highlights:



* Admired Nazism/fascism.



* “Arabism above all.”





Nazism in Syria and Lebanon By Nordbruch Goetz, p. 54


Muslim schools that were directed by the Maqasid Islamic Charitable Association provided Najada a pool of potential members. As a Muslim ‘twin’ to the Phalangists, as the organization was often described, Najjada adopted a pan-Arab nationalist vision, calling for a suppression of all foreign influences. The ambivalent relation of such pan- Arab concepts to ethnocentric and racial nationalism became visible in its slogan ‘Arabism above all’ (al-‘uruba fawqa al-jami’).

http://books.google.com/books?id=iAWBkDAv4TkC&pg=PA54

Colonial citizens: republican rights, paternal privilege, and gender in French Syria and Lebanon, by Elizabeth Thompson, [Columbia University Press] 2000 [ISBN 0231106610, 97802311066103]

…admired the youth groups and physical discipline at the Berlin Olympics, and their Muslim counterparts, the Najjada (Helpers), promoted by Muhi al-Din Nasuli, a leader of the Muslim scouting movement and newspaper publisher… the pan-Arabism of the Najjada… of… Lebanese groups… Since at least 1933, newspapers had been printing Hitler’s speeches and excerpts from Mem Kampf. Hitler and Mussolini were viewed in both Syria and Lebanon as models of strong statebuilders… criticized “moral chaos” in public life and adopted the motto “Arabism Above All” on his newspaper’s masthead, which also printed glowing accounts of German youth’s support of Hitler…

http://books.google.com/books?id=B9fruGejwmUC&pg=PA193

http://www.ciaonet.org/book/the01/the01_11.pdf

[CIA document THE CURRENT SITUATION IN PALESTINE, ORE 49, 20 October 1947]



There are two para-military Arab organizations, the Futuwwa and the Najjada, both of which are more or less controlled by the Arab higher Committe under the leadership of the Grand Mufti.
http://www.foia.cia.gov/browse_docs_full.asp




Handcshar SS Muslim Nazi units [Bosnians, Albanians]



Highlights:



* Three divisions of Nazi Muslim socldiers:
1) The Waffen SS 13th Handschar (“Knife”).
2.) The 23rd Kama (“Dagger”).
3.) The 21st Skenderbeg.


* Grand Mufti inspired the “holy warriors” [Jihad for Nazi victory].



* Some of these ex-Nazi soldiers came to fight with Arab Muslim “brethren” against Israel in 1948.




Cairo to Damascus – Pages 419-420 – John Roy Carlson – [READ BOOK] 2007 – 520 pages



The Mufti also organized an Arab Brigade and a Moslem Legion to fight side by side with the Nazis. An Arab leader accepted a commission as colonel in the Wehrmacht. Turning
ing to large Moslem populations in Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Albania, the Mufti with the help of Pavelich, the Croatian quisling, recruited substantial numbers of Moslem Holy Warriors who fought as the Waffen SS, and the “Free Arabia” movement. the Mufti visited these troops frequently praying with them, exhorting them to fight for Allah.

http://books.google.com/books?id=I-nzRJpb5CIC&pg=PA419


“FASCIST MUSLIM GROUP EXPECTED TO LOOT TEL AVIV IN 1948,” by Seth J. Frantzman [San Francisco Sentinal, 10 May, 2008]

On a pleasant Thursday in December 1948, Emilio Traubner, a correspondent for The Palestine Post, found himself near Abu Kabir, not far from Jaffa. Trenches and expended cartridges were strewn about, reminders of the fighting between units of the Irgun and local Arab forces that had taken place there seven months previously. There was a large Arab villa from where Traubner recovered a diary. It turned out to be the daily record of Yusuf Begovic of Pale, a town near Sarajevo in modern-day Bosnia-Herzegovina. In it Begovic had described his activities as a cook for the “Arab Army of Liberation.”

Traubner described who Begovic had been serving: “35 Yugoslav Muslims who had a good reason to expect to be among the first to occupy and loot Tel Aviv, were part of a group of some thousands who came to the Middle East to join the jihad against Israel.”

What were Yugoslav Muslims doing in Jaffa in 1948? How had they managed to get themselves all the way to the Holy Land? What had motivated them? Who had recruited them? What was the Bosnian or Albanian connection to the Palestinians, if there was one?

There was a Bosnian connection: Haj Amin al-Husseini, the mufti of Jerusalem, had been in Bosnia in the 1940s. Had he recruited these men? What had become of them?

It turned out that in 2005 a Bosnian had given an interview in Lebanon to a Croatian newspaper and claimed to have fought in the 1948 war. The story began to crystallize.

The Long Shadow of Haj Amin

In October 1937, Haj Amin al-Husseini, mufti of Jerusalem and leader of the Arab Higher Committee, was hiding from the British authorities in the Haram al-Sharif, the holy sanctuary atop the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. On October 13, disguised as a Beduin, he fled to Lebanon via Jaffa. In Lebanon he received sanctuary from the French mandatory authorities but he fled again with the outbreak of war in 1939. This time he made his way to Baghdad disguised as a woman. In Baghdad in 1940 and 1941 he increased his contacts with Germany, offering to aid the Nazis in return for their help in gaining independence for the Arab states. The Italians helped him enter Turkey, and then he made his way to Rome on October 11. He met with Mussolini and then with Hitler on November 28. After the failure of various schemes to create an Arab military unit he eventually settled for recruiting Muslim volunteers to aid the Nazis from the Balkans, Bosnia and eventually Kosovo.

In speaking to potential recruits, Husseini stressed the connections they had to the Muslim nation fighting the British throughout the world: “The hearts of all Muslims must today go out to our Islamic brothers in Bosnia, who are forced to endure a tragic fate. They are being persecuted by the Serbian and communist bandits, who receive support from England and the Soviet Union… They are being murdered, their possessions are robbed and their villages are burned. England and its allies bear a great accountability before history for mishandling and murdering Europe’s Muslims, just as they have done in the Arabic lands and in India.”

Three divisions of Muslim soldiers were recruited: The Waffen SS 13th Handschar (”Knife”) and the 23rd Kama (”Dagger”) and the 21st Skenderbeg. The Skenderbeg was an Albanian unit of around 4,000 men, and the Kama was composed of Muslims from Bosnia, containing 3,793 men at its peak. The Handschar was the largest unit, around 20,000 Bosnian Muslim volunteers. According to the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, “These Muslim volunteer units, called Handschar, were put in Waffen SS units, fought Yugoslav partisans in Bosnia and carried out police and security duties in Hungary. They participated in the massacre of civilians in Bosnia and volunteered to join in the hunt for Jews in Croatia.” Part of the division also escorted Hungarian Jews from the forced labor in mine in Bor on their way back to Hungary. The division was also employed against Serbs, who as Orthodox Christians were seen by the Bosnian Muslims as enemies.

The Handschar division surrendered to the British army on May 8, 1945. As many as 70,000 Bosnian Muslim POWs and their families were moved by the British army to Taranto in Italy. The creation of Marshal Tito’s Yugoslavia at the end of the war meant that former Bosnian Muslim volunteers in the German SS units could not return home for fear of prosecution or internment. George Lepre, a scholar on the history of the Handschar and author of Himmler’s Bosnian Division: The Waffen-SS Handschar Division 1943-1945 describes their fate: “Those Bosnians who elected to remain in the camps eventually found asylum in countries throughout the Western and Arab worlds. Many of those who settled in the Middle East later fought in Palestine against the new Israeli state.”

But first they had to get to the Middle East.

The formation of the Bosnian unit in 1947

The Bosnian Muslims, usually referred to as “Yugoslavs” in period newspaper accounts as well as in intelligence reports, remained in DP camps in Italy until 1947, when it was reported in The Palestine Post on April 18 that there was a “request from the Syrian government for the transfer of 8,000 Bosnian Moslem refugees at present in Italy. Yugoslav quarters here say that the Arab League has written to all Arab states, urging them to assist these Moslem DPs, and that some financial help has already been received. Yugoslav officials say that they too want these 8,000 Moslems back, as they are the Handschar Division of the German Wehrmacht which surrendered to the British… The Yugoslavs state that they view with the gravest concern the possibility of the transfer of this group to the Middle East.”

By December 1947 a nucleus of former Handschar officers had made their way to Syria and were beginning to reconstitute their unit in Damascus. A report by Israel Baer in the Post noted that “the latest recruits to the Syrian army are members of the Bosnian Waffen SS… It is reported that they are directing a school for commando tactics for the Syrian Army.”

No doubt the fledgling Syrian army which had been born in 1946 was in need of officers and trainers with experience. Emilio Traubner, writing on December 3, 1947, noted that the International Refugee Organization (IRO) was even convinced to fund the travel of Bosnian Muslims from Italy to the Middle East so that they could find homes since they refused to be repatriated to Yugoslavia.

In January 1948 Arab agents were working to recruit Bosnians for the fight in Palestine. On February 2, it was reported that 25 Bosnian Muslims had arrived in Beirut and were moving to Damascus to join 40 other Bosnians already there. A report by Jon Kimche on February 4 further noted that up to 3,500 were being transferred to Syria to fight alongside Fawzi Kaukji’s Arab Liberation Army (ALA) in its invasion of Palestine. On March 14 a party of 67 Albanians, 20 Yugoslavs and 21 Croats led by an Albanian named Derwish Bashaco arrived by boat in Beirut from Italy. They were hosted by the Palestine Arab Bureau and made their way to Damascus to join the ALA. In the first week of April another 200 Bosnians arrived in Beirut.

A lengthy report by Claire Neikind on March 2 described the procedure by which Arab agents were recruiting volunteers among the DPs in Italy. Men between 22 and 32 were sought and in return they would receive free passage to Beirut and their families would receive maintenance. According to Neikind, 300 men had already arrived and 90 Croatian Ustashi were also making there way. Fifty-seven were sent to Amman. Between December 1 and February 20 a total of 106 were sent to Syria. Neikind noted that “as soon as their families are settled, they enter Arab military service.”

If one accepts merely the low totals from newspaper accounts it appears that there were at least 520 Bosnians, 67 Albanians and 111 Croatians in Syria or Beirut, as well as 135 Bosnians on their way to Egypt and 57 Bosnians in Jordan. Thus 890 volunteers from Yugoslavia and Albania were in the Middle East by April 1948, before Israel’s declaration of independence on May 15, 1948.

Upon arrival the volunteers found their way to a camp at Katana, a military base west of Damascus that the Syrian army had provided for use by the Arab Liberation Army being assembled to invade Palestine. Here they met their commander, Fawzi Kaukji for the first time. Kaukji, 58, was a former Ottoman soldier who had fought in the Arab Revolt. Hagana intelligence estimated as many as 4,000 volunteers had joined his army.

In December of 2005, Hassan Haidar Diab, a journalist in Bosnia, was able to locate Kemal Rustomovic, a Bosnian who had served with the Yugoslav volunteers. He claimed to have been a member of the Arab Salvation Army where 150 of his fellow Bosnians served under a Bosnian officer named Fuad Sefkobegovic.

The Role of the Bosnians in the War of Independence

Since the fall of 1947 Arab forces under Abdel Khader Husseini and other locals had harassed Jewish traffic and supplies moving from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. A mixed Bosnian-Arab unit of the ALA had been dispatched to aid in the siege of Jerusalem and this unit found itself embroiled in the battle for Castel between April 3 and 8, 1948. This battle was part of the Hagana’s Operation Nahshon which was intended to relieve the siege of Jerusalem. It is not clear what became of the Bosnians who fought at Castel. Some may have retired to Ramallah, where it was reported on April 16 that Muslim foreigners including Yugoslavs had taken over the best hotels and “molested” the local population.

The next battle that the Bosnian units participated in was at Jaffa between April 25 and May 5. Jaffa had been allotted to the Arab state in the UN partition plan, but it was surrounded by territory allotted to the Jewish state. The battle began when the Irgun launched an attack on the city. According to the Hagana, there were 400 “Yugoslavs” and 200 Iraqis defending Jaffa. On April 28, Michel Issa, the Christian Arab commander of the Ajnadin Battalion, received orders from Kaukji to move from the Jerusalem foothills to relieve the siege of Jaffa. On the same day, Hagana intelligence noted that there were 60 “Yugoslavs” among the defenders of Jaffa. Issa arrived in Jaffa on April 29 ; the commander of Jaffa, Maj. Adil Najmuddin, deserted the city on May 1, leaving Issa and his Yugoslavs. According to Issa’s telegram to Kaukji, “Adil left [the] city by sea with all [the] Iraqis and Yugoslavs.” Prior to their departure the Yugoslavs had been billeted at local homes and their unit even included a cook.

Kemal Rustomovic recalled in his interview that he had first been at Nablus, then Jaffa and finally at Jenin. Between the evacuation of the Yugoslavs by sea from Jaffa and their reunion with the ALA, the State of Israel was born on May 15, 1948. On the same day five Arab armies invaded Israel and the war became much wider.

The ALA became a disorganized and largely spent force by the time it saw fighting again around Nazareth again in July. During the fighting in the North, Kaukji’s army of 2,500 men was reduced to only 800 and it was driven from Nazareth into northern Galilee. Rustomovic was one of these men according to his interview. The Post reported that the ALA still included “Yugoslavs.” On July 18 the Post reported that the British government’s intelligence had acted to “systematically sabotage [the] Palestine partition scheme” and provided as evidence the fact that England was aware of the presence of Bosnian volunteers in Syria.

During the fighting in October the IDF conquered the entire Galilee and parts of Southern Lebanon. A report on November 1, detailing the capture of the Galilee, noted that some “Yugoslavs” had been captured during the fighting that had driven the ALA and the Lebanese army from Palestine and actually found the IDF in Lebanon.

The Bosnians and the 1948 war, strange bedfellows?

It is not known what became of the Bosnians who served with the Arab forces in the 1948 war. Rustomovic, who was born in the village of Kuti in central Bosnia in 1928, joined the Lebanese army in 1950. He served his adopted country for 30 years, married a local woman and had seven daughters and five sons with her. He was granted Lebanese citizenship, unlike the Palestine refugees who fled to Lebanon, and retired from the army in 1980. According to him, none of the Bosnians who had served in the SS ever returned to Yugoslavia. Some ended up in the US, Australia and Canada. It is assumed that some also settled in Syria or elsewhere in the Middle East. Today many would be in their 80s and 90s and it is doubtful that many of them survive.

In the 1990s during the Balkan wars, Arabs would journey to the Balkans to participate in war between Bosnians and Serbs. In a strange twist they would be repaying the debt incurred when 900 or more Bosnian Muslims gave up their homes and past to come to the Middle East to serve the Muslim Arab cause. The involvement of these Bosnians may be seen as an early version of the linkage of Muslim conflicts throughout the world. This has gained increased exposure lately due to the involvement of foreign Muslim volunteers in the Algerian, Lebanese, Kashmiri, Sudanese and Afghani conflicts among others.

The writer is in a doctoral program at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and his MA thesis was on the Christian Arabs in the 1948 war.

http://www.sanfranciscosentinel.com/?p=12613



Admiration & worshipping



Highlights:



* Glorification.



* “The whole Arab youth is enthused by Adolf Hitler.”



* Islamicizing Adolf Hitler: ‘Abu Ali,’ ‘Muhammad Haidar.’



* Admirations till today.




Nazism in Syria and Lebanon. The Ambivalence of the German Option, 1933-1945 by Götz Nordbruch, Routledge, 2009, 209 pp.
Reviewed by Wolfgang G. Schwanitz




Hitler in the Levant: How Arabs Reacted to the Third Reich in Syria and Lebanon



The whole Arab youth is enthused by Adolf Hitler, wrote Kamil Muruwwa, the young editor of the Beirut paper An-Nida’, to the German Foreign Minister in Berlin. The year after Hitler came to power, Muruwwa translated Mein Kampf from English into Arabic and published it in daily installments in An-Nida’. Now he wants to edit the series as a book. But for this, he explains in his letter, he needs an additional 600 Marks. Therefore he is asking the German government for financial support in this endeavor.

http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&TMID=111&LNGID=1&FID=388&PID=0&IID=3235


The beast reawakens – Page 122 – Martin A. Lee – Routledge, 1999 [ISBN:0-415-92546-0] – 560 pages


Even though he loathed Arabs (he once described them as “lacquered half-apes who ought to be whipped”), Hitler was nonetheless the idol of the paramilitary Green Shirts, Egypt’s indigenous proto-fascist moevemnt, which referred to him as Abu Ali, the “good fighter.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=SX4B7pNG3W8C&pg=PA122


The dream palace of the Arabs: a generation’s odyssey Fouad Ajami – [Random House, Inc.] 1999 – 344 pages p. 78


…a popular couplet at the time taunted the French about Hitler’s victory:
Ya France, hiddi W’irhali Ijaki Hitler, Abu Ali,

Oh France, dismantle and be gone

After you is Hitler, Abu Ali
“Abu Ali” was the popular name given to neighborhood toughs, an endearing nickname. The German wreaking havoc on Europe was doing to the colonial masters …

http://books.google.com/books?id=z1Yf1rEwq28C&pg=PT78


Encyclopedia of the Holocaust: Volume 2 – Israel Gutman – 1990 – 1905 pages – Page 716



The German legation acquired an Iraqi daily, Al-Alim al-Arabi, which, beginning in October 1933 , serialized Hitler’s MEIN KAMPF, and published propaganda pieces praising the fascist regimes. Members of the intelligentsia and army officers were invited to Germany as guests of the Nazi party. Radical nationalist organizations inspired by fascist ideology were established such as…

http://books.google.com/books?&id=1SoYAAAAIAAJ&dq=Al-Futuwwa

The case for Israel – Alan M. Dershowitz – [John Wiley and Sons] 2003 – Biography & Autobiography – 264 pages – Page 54

… consul in Jerusalem that “the Muslims inside and outside Palestine welcome the new …
The sawstika became a welcome symbol among many Palestinians.
http://books.google.com/books?id=Dunx_i1P6fMC&pg=PA54

Prevent World War III. Society for the Prevention of World War III (New York, N.Y.) – 1959 – Page 41



Abu Ali, the affectionate name given to Adolf Hitler by his admirers in Iraq, has also returned to popularity. Incidentally, the name Abu Ali means “father of Ali,” ie, father of Rashid Ali. Photographs of Hitler are appearing again.

http://books.google.com/books?&id=ckHTAAAAMAAJ&dq=father+of+ali

Waiting for the dawn: an autobiography – Atallah Mansour – 1975 – 155 pages – Page 15


… and from time to time we began hearing unfavourable , comments on the British, predicting their defeat at the phands of ‘Abu Ali’ — Hitler. (The name Abu Ali normally I indicates admiration for a powerful leader. …

http://books.google.com/books?&id=6IFtAAAAMAAJ&dq=Abu+Ali


A Genealogy of Evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad – Page 97-98 – David Patterson – [Cambridge University Press] 2010 – 308 pages [ISBN 0521132614, 9780521132619]



“The close and at times active relationship that developed between Nazi Germany and sections of the Arab leadership, in the years from 1933 to 1945,” writes Lewis, … Party. Its leader Antun Saadeh (1904–1949) called himself the Fuhrer of the [p. 98] Syrian nation, among them Hitler became known as Abu Ali (in Egypt he was called Muhammad Haidar). The banner of the PPS displayed a stastika on a black-and-white background. Timmerman notes that this Islamic admiration of the Nazis extended into later years, when Muslims throughout the Middle East were naming their children after Adolf Hitler…


http://books.google.com/books?id=lMLmK-fmf8kC&pg=PA97

The closed circle: an interpretation of the Arabs – David Pryce-Jones – [Ivan R. Dee] 2002
[ISBN 1566634407, 9781566634403] – Page 201




Preposterously, Hitler himself was Islamicized on the radio and by word of mouth as “Abu Ali,” and in Egypt at least was referred to as “Muhammad Haidar.” As such, he was prayed for in every village, …

http://books.google.com/books?&id=VCQXAQAAIAAJ&dq=muhammad+haidar

The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini, by Chuck Morse – 2003 – Page 31 – 186 pages



In Heaven Allah, on Earth Hitler.” Many Arab intellectuals and revisionists now explain this affinity the Arabs had for Hitler and Nazism with the … The Arabs would go so far as to Islamicize Hitler’s name rendering it as Abu Ali,…

http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA31


The closed circle: an interpretation of the Arabs – David Pryce-Jones – 2002 – Page 194



To this day no Arab has written anything like a scholary study of the Holocaust; and the Arab expression of admiration for it have been frequent…

http://books.google.com/books?id=VCQXAQAAIAAJ&q=mein+kampf

[pp. 199-200]

Delegations of Syrian and Iraqis attended Nuremberg Party rallies. More than one Arab translated Hitler’s Mein Kampf into [p. 200] Arabic, and among them was Yunis el-Sabawi, an Iraqi and close associate of Rashid Ali and later to be hanged by the British.

http://books.google.com/books?id=VCQXAQAAIAAJ&q=mein+kampf

http://books.google.com/books?id=VCQXAQAAIAAJ&q=yunis


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Racist Arab anti-Zionist [G. Achcar] has a “book” out about Arabs & the Nazis. What’s next in revisionism?

November 26, 2010

Racist (Lebanese) Arab anti-Zionist [G. Achcar] has a “book” out about Arabs & the Nazis. What’s next in revisionism?

Not in Moderation
Jeffrey Herf
Not in Moderation The Wise Man It Will Not Go Away November 1, 2010 | 12:00 am
Print. The Arabs and the Holocaust: The Arab-Israeli War of Narratives
by Gilbert Achcar
Metropolitan Books, 386 pp., $30

[…]

In a chapter on “stigmas and stigmatization,” Achcar underscores his rejection of Zionism. He presents himself as one of “the humanists of the two communities” of Israelis and Palestinians caught between “neo-Zionism and xenophobia on the one hand, ultranationalism and Islamic fundamentalism on the other.” “The bigoted notion,” he adds, “that all Jews are Zionists has its pendant in the bigoted notion that all Arabs are anti-Semites.” The pairing in the sentence repeats Achcar’s assumption that Zionism and anti-Semitism are equally repugnant forms of racism. He then dismisses the arguments of Harkabi, Lewis, Robert Wistrich, Yehuda Bauer, and others regarding a “new anti-Semitism” in recent years in the Arab and Islamic world and among Muslim immigrants to Europe. He spends five pages on “the new anti-Semitism” without presenting a shred of evidence that its advocates have put forward to document its existence. He gives Bernard Lewis a rhetorical pat on the back for not indulging in “the excesses of anti-Arab propaganda” which presumably flow from the pens of others, yet he never presents an example of a serious scholar who has suggested that all Arabs or all Muslims are anti-Semites.

[…]

Achcar is a man at war with what he has written in his own book. It is Achcar, not us supposed Islamophobes and anti-Arab racists, who documents the tradition of Pan-Islamism and the fusion of Nazism and Islamic fundamentalism that was a key chapter in its history. The same author who traced this tradition from Rida to Husseini now writes as if the terms “Islamism” and “Islamofascism” are the product of anti-Islamic bigotry. Isn’t it possible, and even likely, that those he denounces for criticizing Islamism in recent years have arrived at conclusions similar to his own regarding the Islamists of the 1930s and 1940s because they, like him, concluded that there was good evidence in both cases to do so?

http://www.tnr.com/book/review/not-in-moderation?page=0,1

__________

Related:

“Icon of Evil: Hitler’s Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam,” David Dalin, John Rothmann, Alan Dershowitz, Transaction Publishers: 2009 http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC

“Nazi propaganda for the Arab world,” Jeffrey Herf, Yale University Press: 2009
http://books.google.com/books?id=YzQNSTvHv-sC

Wild, Stefan. “National Socialism in the Arab near East between 1933 and 1939.” Die Welt des Islams, 1985, pp. 126-137
http://books.google.com/books?&id=bQcsAAAAIAAJ&dq=futuwwa
http://books.google.com/books?&id=bQcsAAAAIAAJ&dq=pps
http://books.google.com/books?&id=bQcsAAAAIAAJ&dq=young+egypt
(http://www.tcd.ie/history//undergraduate/pdf/bwwii/jstorarticles/Stefan%20Wild%20National%20Socialims%20in%20the%20Arab%20Middle%20East%201933%201939.pdf)

“Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11,” Matthias Küntzel, Telos Press Publishing: 2007
http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC

Reference Guide to the Nazis and Arabs During the Holocaust: A Concise Guide to the Relationship and Conspiracy of the Nazis and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in North Africa and the Middle East During the Era of the Holocaust” Shelomo Alfassa
Lulu.com: 2006
http://books.google.com/books?id=T2g2XA53UOEC

“The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini,” Chuck Morse, iUniverse: 2003
http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C

‘ARAB NAZI PARTY / PARTIES’

November 14, 2010

‘ARAB NAZI PARTY / PARTIES’

Middle Eastern Myths “The Myth of Yasser Arafat”
During the war, Arab Nazi parties were founded throughout the Middle East. The most influential one was “Young Egypt” which was established in 1933. …
http://www.rbooker.com/articles/TheMythofYasserArafat.PDF

Armies of the young: child soldiers in war and terrorism – Page 106
 David M. Rosen – 2005 – 199 pages
Others argued that the “Land is in need of a youth, healthy in body and soul like the Nazi … paramilitary forces. Palestinian students educated in Germany returned to Palestine determined to found the Arab Nazi Party of Palestine.
http://books.google.com/books?id=zQYQ0tho6mAC&pg=PA106

Semites and anti-Semites: an inquiry into conflict and prejudice – Page 147 Bernard Lewis – 1999 – 295 pages
A first attempt to found an Arab Nazi movement seems to date from the summer of 1933, when the Jaffa correspondent of the … The mood of the 1930s was vividly described by Syrian Saml al- Jundi, an early leader of the Bacth party, …
http://books.google.com/books?id=GteStbiDEjAC&pg=PA147 <

<The third Reich & the Palestine question – Page 90
 Francis R. Nicosia – 2000 – 319 pages
Wolff’s strong opposition to any sort of German encouragement or support for an Arab Nazi party in Palestine was conveyed in a note to the Foreign Office in Berlin in June, 1933, in which he argued: Because the strengthening of the 
http://books.google.com/books?id=8X2G1G_jD-4C&pg=PA90

<First things: Issues 154-158
 Institute on Religion and Public Life – 2005 – [Page 14]
Several of the Arab political parties founded during the 1930s were modeled after the Nazi party, including the Syrian Popular Party and the Young Egypt Society, which were explicitly anti-Semitic in their ideology and programs. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=4-gnAAAAYAAJ&q=modeled

The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini By Chuck Morse – Page 28 Chuck Morse – 2003 – 186 pages
Al- Husseini’s own Palestine Arab Party stood for the expulsion of all Jewish settlers and an independent Arab … efforts to assist in the development of what would become distinctly Nazi-Arab style organizations and political parties…
http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA28

The Demonic Comedy – Page 12
 Paul William Roberts, Jay Ed. Roberts – 2004 – 308 pages
When the revolutionary Ba’ath regime — a kind of Arab Nazi Party — came to power in July 1968, no Jew left in Iraq was safe. In the wake of the Arabs’ massive defeat by Israel during the Six Day War of 1967, a state of shocked disbelief …
http://books.google.com/books?id=h4vv3m1bXV4C&pg=PA12

Chronology of Persecution: The Nazi/Arab plots to exterminate Jews
Oct 18, 2010 … They embraced Nazi slogans and inspired other pro-Nazi parties in the Arab world . Hitler’s first congratulatory telegrams came from Arab …
http://www.crossroad.to/Excerpts/chronologies/nazi-arab.htm

Nazi propaganda for the Arab world –
Jeffrey Herf – 2009 – History – 335 pages – Page 90
While abroad, Ettel was active in the Nazi Party’s foreign branches … the Mufti assured Ettel that Arab and German interests were “completely overlapping” and that “the Arab felt closely bound to the Germans in the struggle against world Jewry,” England, and the United States…
http://books.google.com/books?id=YzQNSTvHv-sC&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90

The Nazi Background of Saddam Hussein.. Feb 21, 2003 … Rashid Ali and the so-called “golden square” cabal of pro-Nazi …The Mufti, after instigating a pogrom against Jews in Palestine in 1920, the first such pogrom against Jews in the Arab world in hundreds of years, went on to inspire the development of pro-Nazi parties throughout the Arab world including Young Egypt, led by Gamal Abdul Nasser, and the Social Nationalist Party of Syria led by Anton Sa’ada.
http://archive.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2003/2/20/145726.shtml

Nazi War Criminals in Arab Countries – David S. Wyman Institute …May 10, 2006… several former German military and Nazi party officials … were granted sanctuary in Arab countries, most notably Egypt.” …
http://www.wymaninstitute.org/letters/2006-05-10-nazi.php

Nazi Roots of Palestinian Nationalism

By David Storobin

“Our fundamental condition for cooperating with Germany was a free hand to eradicate every last Jew from Palestine and the Arab world. I asked Hitler for an explicit undertaking to allow us to solve the Jewish problem in a manner befitting our national and racial aspirations and according to the scientific methods innovated by Germany in the handling of its Jews. The answer I got was: The Jews are yours.”

Former Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Amin al-Husseini in his post-World War II memoirs.

“The Mufti was one of the initiators of the systematic extermination of European Jewry and had been a collaborator and adviser of Eichmann and Himmler in the execution of this plan… He was one of Eichmann’s best friends and had constantly incited him to accelerate the extermination measures.”

Adolf Eichmann`s deputy Dieter Wisliceny in his Nuremberg Trials testimony.

Within weeks of Adolf Hitler`s ascendance to power, the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, contacted the German counsel-general in Palestine. With the exception of funding some anti-Semitic riots, Germans rejected the Arab`s overtures until 1937, when Adolf Eichmann and Herbert Hagen were sent to Palestine to establish a framework to provide Husseini with military and financial aid by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.

By then, the Mufti had already proven his anti-Jewish credentials to the Germans by organizing a three-year-long series of riots and massacres.

On April 19, 1936, a crowd of Arabs stumbled upon Jews in the town of Jaffa. Having been incited by Mufti-spread rumors that Zionists were killing Muslims, the crowd decided to kill three of the Jews they met. Six days later, the Arab Higher Committee was created, with al-Husseini presiding over the new body. The committee openly endorsed past violence and began organizing future terror.
http://www.nyjtimes.com/cover/03-08-05/nazirootsofpalestiniannationalism.htm

Nazi Agents Infiltrated Mandatory Palestine Prior to World War II
By David Krusch

Smuggled photographs of documents from Nazi Germany prior to World War II offer insight into a secret alliance between Nazi agents and Palestinian leaders. These German documents, photographed by an American spy in 1937 and sent to British intelligence, are now housed in the British National Archives in London. The documents show, among other things, that the Nazis attempted to send a shipment of arms “via Turkey and addressed to Ibn Saud, but really intended for the Palestinian insurgents.”

According to British documents and photographed Nazi records, several Nazi agents were sent to Mandatory Palestine to meet with Palestinian leaders, and influence them into rejecting a proposed partition plan which would divide the Jewish and Arab populations. Adam Vollhardt, a Nazi agent, was sent to Palestine in July 1938, and held several meetings with Arab leaders. He told Palestinian leaders that “Germany was interested in the settlement of the question on the basis of the Arabs obtaining their full demands,” and the “Germans could continue to support the Palestinian Arab cause by means of propaganda.”

Germany believed that Palestine under Arab control would be one of the few countries that would give “strong sympathy” to the new Germany under Nazi rule. A report from German General Consulate in Palestine in 1937 stated, “The formation of a Jewish state…is not in Germany’s interest because a (Jewish) Palestinian state would create additional national power bases for international Jewry such as for example the Vatican State political Catholicism or Moscow for the Communists.” The Nazis attempted to boost the power of Palestinian leaders in order to counter Jewish national aspirations for a state in Palestine.

In 1937, a Nazi official wrote a letter from Palestine to Berlin which said that Palestinian Arabs showed “a great sympathy for new Germany and its Fuhrer…based on a purely ideological foundation.” Another agent, Dr. Franz Reichart was working in conjunction with Palestinians “to help coordinate Arab and German propaganda.”

The documents also show that due to increased Nazi-Arab alliances, the British government cancelled a plan in 1938 to bring 20,000 German Jewish refugees to Palestine so it would not upset Arab opinion. A British Foreign Office report said that when British representatives in Arab countries were asked if Arab governments would support a proposal to bring 5,000 Jewish children to Palestine for adoption, they said the reaction would be so strongly negative that the Arabs would probably refuse to even send delegates to London to discuss such a proposal. Lord Chatfield, Minister for Coordination of Defence, was quoted as saying, “If war were to break out, no trouble that the Jews could occasion us…could weigh for the a moment against the importance of winning Muslim opinion to our side.” Therefore, 20,000 Jewish refugees, many of them children, were abandoned and left in Nazi Germany to face the horrors of the Holocaust.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/NaziPals.html

Despite Hitler and Nazis’ contempt for the “inferior” Arab and all Middle-Easterners’ race, who have been considered ‘half-apes.’ (http://books.google.com/books?id=GteStbiDEjAC&pg=PA140) Nazi Arabs managed to “rise” above humiliation for the sake of the ‘greater common evil’ AKA: anti-Semitism [anti-Jew-ism].